Brain Science

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Information Age Education (IAE) is an Oregon non-profit corporation created by David Moursund in July, 2007. It works to improve the informal and formal education of people of all ages throughout the world. A number of people have contributed their time and expertise in developing the materials that are made available free in the various IAE publications. Click here to learn how you can help develop new IAE materials.



“No computer has ever been designed that is ever aware of what it's doing; but most of the time, we aren't either.” (Marvin Minsky; American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence; 1927-.)
“Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.” (Stephen W. Hawking; British theoretical physicist and cosmologist; 1942-.)

Brain science has a quite long history. However, it is only in recent years that technology and brain theory have progressed to a stage that allows us to gain an understanding of how brains work at the neuron level. In addition, our increased understanding of genes is providing information about a variety of brain "defects" and diseases. We are developing useful interventions based on brain education (training, retraining) and drugs.

The field of brain science (cognitive neuroscience) is expanding quite rapidly. It may well be that the totality of knowledge in this area is doubling every five years. We can now speak more confidently about nature, nurture, and brain plasticity.

Increased understanding of brain functioning is quite important in education. A superb example is provided by the research and development in dyslexia, a relatively common reading disorder. Appropriate interventions can actually "rewire" the brain and help many dyslexics to become good readers.

Of course, all learning involves rewiring of the brain. As we understand this process more clearly, we are better able to deal with a variety of learning differences and the education of all students.

If you have not read much about recent progress in brain science, especially its applications in education, here are five "quick" sources of information that you might want to check out:

  • Here is an overview article:
Sparks, S.D. (6/4/2012). Experts Call for Teaching Educators Brain Science. Education Week. Retrieved 6/14/2012 from Quoting from the article:
"For the most part, teachers are not exposed systemically in a way that allows them to understand things like brain plasticity," said Michael J. Nakkula, the chairman of applied psychology and human development at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education. Mr. Nakkula is part of the Students at the Center project, a series of reports on teaching and learning launched this spring by the Boston-based nonprofit group Jobs for the Future. [See papers by Hilton, Ficher, and Glennon available at]

A Variety of Interesting and Important Topics

The following is a list of brain science topics that I have found interesting and useful to me. They are arranged in alphabetical order, and each topic is just a brief summary/introduction to a deep area of study. These short sections are designed to whet your appetite! In each of the topic areas there are many researchers and practitioners who spend their full professional time and effort working to advance the area and to apply their new knowledge to address people's problems.


Brain Science research is contributing to our understanding of addiction. What is being learned applies to addiction to various drugs and alcohol, to gambling and other types of games and entertainment, and to other forms of addiction. A quick overview of work being done by David Nutt is offered in a short video [ Just Can't Get Enough. Quoting from the website:

Professor David Nutt was famously sacked from the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs by the UK’s Labour Government at the time, apparently for being rational about scientific evidence. He now chairs the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs, and is head of the Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Molecular Imaging, Imperial College London. He is also a Section Head of Substance Abuse in our Psychiatry Faculty.
His recent work in the Lancet discusses a rational approach to measuring drug harm, concluding that current UK policy is not based on considerations of harm—especially when alcohol is considered.

Marijuana (pot) has long been a popular drug.

Quoting from an article by Eliza Gray in Time (6/5/2014):

In the midst of the drumbeat toward legalization, it’s easy to forget that smoking pot isn’t great for you. Especially if you are a teenager.
A review of the research on the negative health affects of marijuana published today in the New England Journal of Medicine reports that smoking pot as a kid may have lasting impacts on intelligence and achievement.
For starters, smoking pot regularly from an early age is correlated with a lower IQ. The mechanism is not fully understood—experts are not claiming one necessarily causes the other—but scientists speculate the drug can interfere with a critical period for brain development during the teen years. “Adults who smoked regularly during adolescence” according to the review, have “impaired neural connectivity” in parts of the brain involving alertness and self conscious awareness, executive function, processing of habits and routines, learning, and memory.

An article by Schulzke reports on some ongoing studies in other countries.

Schulzke, E. (6/20/2014). Dumb and dumber? Teen marijuana use linked to lower IQ in later life. Discrete National News. Retrieved 7/27/2014 from Quoting from this article:
Earlier this month, three researchers at the National Institute of Drug Abuse published an article in the New England Journal of Medicine surveying the current state of the evidence. According to their report, marijuana use in adolescence and early adulthood may measurably lower users’ IQ decades later down the road.
They conclude there is reason to believe marijuana may permanently harm the adolescent brain. Until the age of 21, the piece notes, the brain “is intrinsically more vulnerable than a mature brain to the adverse long-term effects of environmental insults.”
The Office of National Drug Control Policy reported last year that one in four Boulder County high school students now use pot — more than three times the national average.
And the numbers are shifting fast. In Adams County, a Denver suburb, high school marijuana use jumped from 21 percent in 2008 to 29 percent in 2012. Middle school pot use in Adams County jumped 50 percent during that period — from 5.7 to 8.5 percent.


I (David Moursund, the author of this IAE-pedia page) am somewhat addicted to computer games. Read more about this at Moursund Likes to Play DragonVale.

A great many people have somewhat similar addictions to various forms of electronic entertainment. And, the games need not be electronic. A very smart graduate student–and good friend of mine–flunked out mainly due to his addition to solitaire games played with one or two decks of cards.

Animal Cognition

How intelligent is a chimpanzee, a dog, or a rat? How about a fish or a reptile? How are their brains similar to and different from human brains? For an overview of this topic, go to Animal Cognition in the Wikipedia.

Animal brains, including animal intelligence, is a challenging area of study. How do you design an IQ test for an animal? Probably you have read articles that compare the "intelligence" of a young chimpanzee with that of a young human child. The following article compares chimpanzee intelligence with human intelligence.

Last, Cadell (6/13/2013). 5 Human/Chimpanzee Differences. Retrieved 11/20/2013 from Quoting Charles Darwin from the article:
[Chimpanzees] make tools, use language, understand symbols and build shelters. They also develop long-term bonds, live in highly social groups, make jokes, manipulate, deceive, empathize, and show care for other members of their group and other species. The behavioural differences have been relegated to artificial human-constructed continuums of complexity.

The same article provides a number of examples of intelligence-related activities that chimpanzees can learn to do and also discusses limits to their learning powers. For example:

The desire for humans to ask questions is remarkable. And it is even more remarkable to know that after decades of linguistic training, no chimpanzee has ever asked a question. No other animal on the planet has ever asked a question. Only humans do this. [Bold added for emphasis.]

A Google search on 11/20/2013 of the expression human child chimpanzee intelligence returned about 1.25 million hits. For example:

Neighmond, Patti (9/07/2007). Toddlers Outsmart Chimps in Some Tasks, Not All. NPR. Retrieved 11/20/2013 from Quoting from this article:
To investigate what makes human intelligence so different from ape intelligence, the researchers designed over two dozen tests to measure different kinds of intelligence between the two species.

Quoting the researcher anthropologist Brian Hare in the same article:

Our subjects in this study were 2-and-a-half-year-old children.
Children did not perform any better than apes on many tests that measured concrete knowledge.
They weren't any better than the apes at doing things like adding, counting, remembering where something was hidden.
But when it came to solving more social problems, children excelled. Hare defines a "social problem" as the ability to watch somebody else and figure out what they're trying to do — and what they want you to do. In his study, certain tests looked at how adept children and apes were at understanding someone else's intention.
In one test, treats were placed in a tube purposely designed to be difficult to open. After researchers demonstrated how to open it, most of the toddlers were able to imitate and open it. On the other hand, the apes did not follow suit.

Clearly, apes and many other animals learn by imitation.

Read about Natasha, an extremely intelligent chimpanzee, in the following newspaper article:

Williams, Sarah (8/28/2012). Natasha, 'Genius Chimp,' Aces Intelligence Tests. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11/20/2013 from Note: This article summarizes findings reported in a research article available at Quoting from this article:
Herrmann and her colleagues had previously tested chimps in a study designed to compare the skills of the animals with those of human children. During the study, they noticed a wide range of skills among the chimps and wondered whether they could measure this variation in ability—and whether there were studies that could predict the chimps’ overall performance in all areas, like an IQ test in humans. So they gave a battery of physical and social tests to 106 chimps at Ngamba Island and the Tchimpounga chimpanzee sanctuary in the Republic of the Congo, and to 23 captive chimpanzees and bonobos in Germany. In one experiment, chimps were asked to find food in a container after it had been shuffled around with empty containers. In another, they had to use a stick to get food placed on a high platform. The researchers analyzed the data to determine if the scores in some tests helped predict performance in others.
"In general, we don’t find any kind of general intelligence factor that can predict intelligence in all areas," Herrmann says. "But we did find a big variation overall, and this one outstanding individual."
"This study is top-notch and shows clearly that our traditional ideas about intelligence no longer hold," Hare says. "There are many different types of intelligence that vary independently of one another. This means there are many different types of genius, even in animals."

The following article from The New York Times discusses the intelligence of reptiles.

Anthes, Emily (11/18/2013). Coldblooded Does Not Mean Stupid. The New York Times. Retrieved 11/20/2013 from Quoting from the article:
Humans have no exclusive claim on intelligence. Across the animal kingdom, all sorts of creatures have performed impressive intellectual feats. A bonobo named Kanzi uses an array of symbols to communicate with humans. Chaser the border collie knows the English words for more than 1,000 objects. Crows make sophisticated tools, elephants recognize themselves in the mirror, and dolphins have a rudimentary number sense.

Quoting from a section in the article about a female red-footed tortoise named Moses:

Things became even more interesting when Dr. Wilkinson hung a black curtain around the maze, depriving Moses of the rich environmental cues that had surrounded her. The tortoise adopted a new navigational strategy, exploring the maze systematically by entering whatever arm was directly adjacent to the one she had just left. This approach is “an enormously great” way of solving the task, Dr. Wilkinson said, and a strategy rarely seen in mammals.
Navigational skills are important, but the research also hints at something even more impressive: behavioral flexibility, or the ability to alter one’s behavior as external circumstances change. This flexibility, which allows animals to take advantage of new environments or food sources, has been well documented in birds and primates, and scientists are now beginning to believe that it exists in reptiles, too.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

"The real problem is not whether machines think but whether men do." (B.F. Skinner; American psychologist; 1904-1990.)

The discipline of artificial intelligence (AI) focuses on developing computer systems that can solve problems and accomplish tasks which—if done by humans—would be considered evidence of intelligence. In many different and relatively restricted areas, AI now surpasses human intelligence. An often referenced example goes back to 1997 when a computer system named Big Blue beat Garry Kasparov, who was the reigning human world chess champion.

Historically, there have been two common approaches to the development of artificially intelligent computer systems. One approach was to attempt to model the human brain's approaches to solving problems and accomplishing tasks. The other was to make use of the "brute force" capabilities of computers by any means possible. For example, if a particular problem could be solved by examining a hundred million possible solutions, this brute force approach became feasible as computers became faster and faster.

While both approaches are still being used, the idea of human and computer "brains" working together has gained prominence. A simple example is illustrated by search engines used to search the Web. A human and a computer system combine their capabilities in an attempt to find information that meets the needs of the human.

We have already reached a stage in which computerized implants into human bodies is relatively common. Examples include pacemakers, cochlear implants, and brain implants used for a variety of purposes. Research on implants to increase intelligence is now at the level of experimenting with rats.

The following article focuses on progress in developing computer programs that "think" like a human brain.

Somers, James (11/23/2013). The Man Who Would Teach Machines to Think. The Atlantic. Retrieved 11/2/2013 from Quoting from the article:
Douglas Hofstadter, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, thinks we've lost sight of what artificial intelligence really means.
“It depends on what you mean by artificial intelligence.” Douglas Hofstadter is in a grocery store in Bloomington, Indiana, picking out salad ingredients. “If somebody meant by artificial intelligence the attempt to understand the mind, or to create something human-like, they might say—maybe they wouldn’t go this far—but they might say this is some of the only good work that’s ever been done.”
Hofstadter says this with an easy deliberateness, and he says it that way because for him, it is an uncontroversial conviction that the most-exciting projects in modern artificial intelligence, the stuff the public maybe sees as stepping stones on the way to science fiction—like Watson, IBM’s Jeopardy-playing supercomputer, or Siri, Apple’s iPhone assistant—in fact have very little to do with intelligence. For the past 30 years, most of them spent in an old house just northwest of the Indiana University campus, he and his graduate students have been picking up the slack: trying to figure out how our thinking works, by writing computer programs that think.

Arts and the Brain

There has been substantial research on the arts and the brain. This topic is discussed in a video of a AAAS/Dana public event held on October 24, 2013. The title of the event is The Arts and the Brain: What Does Your Brain See? What does Your Brain Hear? Quoting from the Website:

When you listen to music or look at a painting, your brain is busy. Recent advances in neuroimaging allow a more sophisticated understanding of the brain processes underlying sound and vision.

The Dana Foundation supports a number of brain research projects. Here is some information about their project titled Learning, Arts, and the Brain. Download a PDF of the report from,%20Arts%20and%20the%20Brain_ArtsAndCognition_Compl.pdf. Quoting from the article:

Learning, Arts, and the Brain, a study three years in the making, is the result of research by cognitive neuroscientists from seven leading universities across the United States. In the Dana Consortium study, released in March 2008, researchers grappled with a fundamental question: Are smart people drawn to the arts or does arts training make people smarter?
For the first time, coordinated, multi-university scientific research brings us closer to answering that question. Learning, Arts, and the Brain advances our understanding of the effects of music, dance, and drama education on other types of learning. Children motivated in the arts develop attention skills and strategies for memory retrieval that also apply to other subject areas.
The research was led by Dr. Michael S. Gazzaniga of the University of California at Santa Barbara. “A life-affirming dimension is opening up in neuroscience,” said Dr. Gazzaniga, “to discover how the performance and appreciation of the arts enlarge cognitive capacities will be a long step forward in learning how better to learn and more enjoyably and productively to live. The consortium’s new findings and conceptual advances have clarified what now needs to be done.”


Quoting from

Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Attention has also been referred to as the allocation of processing resources.
Attention is one of the most intensely studied topics within psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology and neuroscience. Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the signals that generate attention, the effects of these signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other cognitive processes like working memory and vigilance. A relatively new body of research is investigating the phenomenon of traumatic brain injuries and their effects on attention.

Quoting from

Beginning with Mackworth’s experiments in the 1950s, the assessment of sustained attention (or vigilance) performance typically has utilized situations in which an observer is required to keep watch for inconspicuous signals over prolonged periods of time. The state of readiness to respond to rarely and unpredictably occurring signals is characterized by an overall ability to detect signals (termed ‘vigilance decrement') The psychological construct of ‘vigilance’, or ‘sustained attention’, has been greatly advanced in recent decades, allowing the development and validation of diverse tasks for the test of sustained attention in human and animals and thereby fostering research on the neuronal circuits mediating sustained attention performance in humans and laboratory animals.

A longitudinal study and other research projects are reported in an article by Katrina Schwartz.

Schwartz, Katrina (12/5/2013). Age of Distraction: Why It's Crucial for Students to Learn to Focus. Mind/Shift. Retrieved 12/7/2013 from Quoting from the article:
The ubiquity of digital technology in all realms of life isn’t going away, but if students don’t learn how to concentrate and shut out distractions, research shows they’ll have a much harder time succeeding in almost every area.
“The real message is because attention is under siege more than it has ever been in human history, we have more distractions than ever before, we have to be more focused on cultivating the skills of attention,” said Daniel Goleman, a psychologist and author of Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence and other books about social and emotional learning on KQED’s Forum program.
Perhaps the most well-known study on concentration is a longitudinal study conducted with over 1,000 children in New Zealand by Terrie Moffitt and Avshalom Caspi, psychology and neuroscience professors at Duke University. The study tested children born in 1972 and 1973 regularly for eight years, measuring their ability to pay attention and to ignore distractions. Then, the researchers tracked those same children down at the age of 32 to see how well they fared in life. The ability to concentrate was the strongest predictor of success.
“This ability is more important than IQ or the socio economic status of the family you grew up in for determining career success, financial success and health,” Goleman said.

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD) are relatively prevalent learning disorders. Quoting from

The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are traits that most children display at some point or another. But to establish a diagnosis of ADHD, sometimes referred to as ADD, the symptoms should be inappropriate for the child's age.
Adults also can have ADHD; in fact, up to half of adults diagnosed with the disorder had it as children. When ADHD persists into adulthood, symptoms may vary. For instance, an adult may experience restlessness instead of hyperactivity. In addition, adults with ADHD often have problems with interpersonal relationships and employment.

There is a lot of literature on ADD and ADHD available on the Web. A 11/2/2013 Google search of the term ADD ADHD produced over 43 million hits. The website indicates that ADHD affects an estimated 3% to 5% of children and adults in the United States. See also

For some of the underlying cognitive neuroscience of ADHD see the 2011 article, Neurobiology of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Quoting from the abstract of this article:

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, has been associated with various structural and functional CNS abnormalities but findings about neurobiological mechanisms linking genes to brain phenotypes are just beginning to emerge. Despite the high heritability of the disorder and its main symptom dimensions, common individual genetic variants are likely to account for a small proportion of the phenotype's variance. Recent findings have drawn attention to the involvement of rare genetic variants in the pathophysiology of ADHD, some being shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Traditionally, neurobiological research on ADHD has focused on catecholaminergic pathways, the main target of pharmacological treatments. However, more distal and basic neuronal processes in relation with cell architecture and function might also play a role, possibly accounting for the coexistence of both diffuse and specific alterations of brain structure and activation patterns. This article aims to provide an overview of recent findings in the rapidly evolving field of ADHD neurobiology with a focus on novel strategies regarding pathophysiological analyses.

Brain Disorders and Learning

There are a number of brain disorders that affect learning. The Dana Foundation—"Your Gateway to information about the brain and brain research"—funds many projects and is a good source of information. For example, see their Brain Connections PDF:

[It] lists more than 240 organizations in the United States likely to help those looking for information, referrals, and other guidance in connection with brain-related disorders. Listings provide mailing addresses, toll-free numbers, e-mail and clickable Web site addresses, and identify the primary services each organization provides.

The Dana Foundation site Brainy Kids provides links to a number of educational resources for kids, parents, and teachers.

The following article provides information on the number of children receiving behavioral modification medications.

Fox, M. (4/23/2014). More than 7 Percent of Kids on Behavioral Meds. NBC News. Retrieved 4/26/2014 from

Quoting from the article:

A new survey finds that 7.5 percent of children aged 6–17 are taking some sort of prescription medicine for emotional or behavioral difficulties.
It’s a first look at the problem, and supports evidence that more and more U.S. kids are getting drugs for conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The good news is that more than half of their parents said the medication helped their children “a lot." The troubling news is that low-income kids were more likely to be given such drugs.
LaJeana Howie and colleagues at the National Center for Health Statistics used data from interviews of the parents of 17,000 children in 2011-2012 for the study.
And, unsurprisingly, more boys than girls were being medicated — 9.7 percent compared to 5.2 percent of girls.

There has been considerable research on specific brain disorders that affect the learning ability of children and adults. Here are some very important examples.


Quoting from

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.
Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.

The number of children being diagnosed as ADHD is growing. See:

Strauss, V. (7/8/2014). Why so many children can's sit still in school today. The Washington Post. Retrieved 1/28/2015 from Quoting from this article:
The Centers for Disease Control tells us that in recent years there has been a jump in the percentage of young people diagnosed with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly known as ADHD: 7.8 percent in 2003 to 9.5 percent in 2007 and to 11 percent in 2011. The reasons for the rise are multiple, and include changes in diagnostic criteria, medication treatment and more awareness of the condition. In the following post, Angela Hanscom, a pediatric occupational therapist and the founder of TimberNook, a nature-based development program designed to foster creativity and independent play outdoors in New England, suggests yet another reason more children are being diagnosed with ADHD, whether or not they really have it: the amount of time kids are forced to sit while they are in school.

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction, by impaired verbal and non-verbal communication, and by restricted, repetitive or stereotyped behavior. The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent before a child is three years old. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood. It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum (ASDs), the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.

For more details, visit the National Institute of Health. Quoting from that site:

Although ASD varies significantly in character and severity, it occurs in all ethnic and socioeconomic groups and affects every age group. Experts estimate that 1 out of 88 children age 8 will have an Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, March 30, 2012). Males are four times more likely to have an ASD than females.

Asperger Syndrome (Asperger's) is an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Quoting from the Wikipedia:

[ASD] is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, alongside restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation of linguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and atypical (peculiar, odd) use of language are frequently reported.

Temple Grandin is autistic and has made major contributions in science and in public understanding autism.

Akst, Jef (5/5/2014). Half Genes, Half Environment. The Scientist. Retrieved 5/5/2014 from Quoting from this report:
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a complex developmental disease that affects nearly 1 percent of US children, has long been recognized to have both genetic and environmental influences. Now, through a review of more than 2 million births in Sweden between 1982 and 2006, researchers led by Sven Sandin of King’s College London and the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm determined that both the heritability of ASD the environmental component each comprise approximately 50 percent of the risk. Moreover, children born into a family in which a sibling or cousin has previously been diagnosed with ASD are at a greatly increased risk: those with an autism-afflicted sibling have a 10-fold greater risk of being affected themselves, while those with an autism-afflicted cousin are twice as likely to be diagnosed with ASD. The team’s results were published this weekend (May 3, 2014) in JAMA.
Grandin, Temple (February, 2010). Temple Grandin: The World Needs All Kinds of Minds. 19-minute video. Retrieved 5/3/2014 from Quoting from the Website:
Temple Grandin, diagnosed with autism as a child, talks about how her mind works -- sharing her ability to "think in pictures," which helps her solve problems that neurotypical brains might miss. She makes the case that the world needs people on the autism spectrum: visual thinkers, pattern thinkers, verbal thinkers, and all kinds of smart geeky kids.

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Dyscalculia is difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, and learning math facts. It is generally seen as a specific developmental disorder like dyslexia.
Dyscalculia can occur in people from across the whole IQ range, often, but not always, involving difficulties with time, measurement, and spatial reasoning, Estimates of the prevalence of dyscalculia range between 3 and 6% of the population. A quarter of children with dyscalculia have ADHD.
Math disabilities can occur as the result of some types of brain injury, in which case the proper term is acalculia, to distinguish it from dyscalculia which is of innate, genetic or developmental origin.

Another website defines dyscalculia and suggests a large co-incidence of dyscalculia and dyslexia. Quoting from this site:

Does dyscalculia also affect people with dyslexia?
Research suggests that 40-50% of dyslexics show no signs of dyscalculia. They perform at least as well in maths as other children, with about 10% achieving at a higher level.
The remaining 50-60% do have difficulties with maths. Not surprisingly, difficulty in decoding written words can transfer across into a difficulty in decoding mathematical notation and symbols.
For some dyslexic pupils, however, difficulty with maths may in fact stem from problems with the language surrounding mathematical questions rather than with number concepts – e.g. their dyslexia may cause them to misunderstand the wording of a question.
In summary, dyscalculia and dyslexia occur both independently of each other and together. The strategies for dealing with dyscalculia will be fundamentally the same whether or not the learner is also dyslexic.

Estimates of the incidence of dyscalculia are in the 3% to 6% range. A May 21, 2012 article in the Post-Gazette reports:

Severe learning disabilities in math, affecting up to 7 percent of all students, have been described as the mathematics version of dyslexia, the reading disorder in which people have trouble understanding or interpreting letters, words and symbols.
The math disorder—dyscalculia—has long been overlooked in the public schools, where the focus traditionally has been reading.

Click here and also here for more about the combination/interaction of dyscalculia and dyslexia.


Dysgraphia is a writing disability. It is a relatively common disorder, with various sources quoting a 5% to 20% range. The Wikipedia indicates:

The number of students with dysgraphia may increase from 4 percent of students in primary grades, due to the overall difficulty of handwriting, and up to 20 percent in middle school because written compositions become more complex. With this in mind, there are no exact numbers of how many individuals have dysgraphia due to its difficulty to diagnose. There are slight gender differences in association with written disabilities; overall it is found that males are more likely to be impaired with handwriting, composing, spelling, and orthographic abilities than females.

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Dysgraphia is a transcription disability, meaning that it is a writing disorder associated with impaired handwriting, orthographic coding (orthography, the storing process of written words and processing the letters in those words), and finger sequencing (the movement of muscles required to write). It often overlaps with other learning disabilities such as speech impairment, attention deficit disorder, or developmental coordination disorder.
Dysgraphia is often, but not always, accompanied by other learning disabilities such as dyslexia or attention deficit disorder, and this can impact the type of dysgraphia a person might have.

Quoting from the National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD):

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing, which requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills. Dysgraphia makes the act of writing difficult. It can lead to problems with spelling, poor handwriting and putting thoughts on paper. People with dysgraphia can have trouble organizing letters, numbers and words on a line or page. This can result partly from:
• Visual-spatial difficulties: trouble processing what the eye sees.
• Language processing difficulty: trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears.
Just having bad handwriting doesn’t mean a person has dysgraphia. Since dysgraphia is a processing disorder, difficulties can change throughout a lifetime. However since writing is a developmental process—children learn the motor skills needed to write, while learning the thinking skills needed to communicate on paper—difficulties can also overlap.

The article provides "warning signs" for three different age groups of children. Possible accommodations include using a word processor. Quoting again from the NCLD site:

Introduce a word processor on a computer early; however do not eliminate handwriting for the child. While typing can make it easier to write by alleviating the frustration of forming letters, handwriting is a vital part of a person's ability to function in the world.…
Encourage use of a spell checker.…
Use assistive technology such as voice-activated software if the mechanical aspects of writing remain a major hurdle.


Quoting Maryanne Wolf from Annie Murphy Paul's The Brilliant Report:

"Dyslexia is our best, most visible evidence that the brain was never wired to read. I look at dyslexia as a daily evolutionary reminder that very different organizations of the brain are possible.… [We must begin] to view children's learning differences in terms of different patterns of brain organization, with genetic variations that bestow both strengths and weaknesses."

The website defines dyslexia as follows:

The term dyslexia is used to describe difficulty in the acquisition of reading, writing and spelling skills but not all poor readers are dyslexic. The child's learning difficulties may be caused by:
* Visual problems through not being able to recognise shape and form.
* Reading speed, accuracy or comprehension.
* Phoneme segmentation (cannot see or hear the components and then put them together to create meaning and to spell the words).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for the diagnosis of dyslexia are:
* Reading achievement substantially below that expected for the person's age, measured intelligence and age-appropriate education.
* The disturbance in reading ability interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living that require reading skills.
* If a sensory deficit is present, the reading difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with the specific sensory deficit.

The incidence level of dyslexia varies with the definition being used. Quoting again from the website above:

It has been suggested that up to 10% of the population (or even more) show some signs of dyslexia, particularly when it is present in other members of the family.

Quoting from

Although it is a common belief that men are significantly more likely to be dyslexic than women, this assumed sex imbalance is not substantiated by recent research. There may be slightly more men than women who have dyslexia, but the difference is not significant.

The following article provides new insight into adult dyslexia:

Vence, Tracy (12/5/2013). Deconstructing Dyslexia. The Scientist. Retrieved 12/11/2013 from Quoting from this article:
Scanning the brains of adults with dyslexia and normal readers, scientists found no differences in phonetic representations—the brain’s interpretations of human speech sounds. Rather, adults with dyslexia may have difficulty processing speech sounds because of a dysfunctional connection between frontal and temporal language areas of the brain that impairs access to otherwise intact phonetic representations.
The findings, published today (December 5) in Science, came as quite a surprise to the research team. “The main aim of the study was to finally objectively demonstrate that the quality of phonetic representations is impaired in individuals with dyslexia,” said Katholieke Universiteit Leuven’s Bart Boets, who led the work. But that’s not at all what they found. “Even while scanning throughout the whole brain for local regions where the representations may be impaired...we could not find a single region with inferior phonetic representations in dyslexics as compared to typical readers,” Boets explained in an e-mail.
Face Blindness (Prosopagnosia)

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Prosopagnosia, also called face blindness, is a cognitive disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decision making) remain intact. The term originally referred to a condition following acute brain damage (acquired prosopagnosia), but a congenital or developmental form of the disorder also exists, which may affect up to 2.5% of the population.

I (David Moursund), have face blindness. I did not discover this until I was well into my 50's. Needless to say, it is a major handicap being a teacher working with a great many students, and not being able to learn to recognize them by their faces!

There are many free self-assessment tests for face blindness available on the Web. For example:

CBS News (8/5/2012). Do You Have Troubles Recognizing Faces? Take a Test. Retrieved 5/5/2014 from Quoting from the website:
This week on "60 Minutes" Lesley Stahl reports on people who are "face blind." It's a mysterious and sad condition that keeps sufferers from recognizing or identifying faces -- even the faces of close family members, children, or spouses. Many "face blind" people don't even know they have it.

The Prosopagnosia Research Center at Bournemouth University, UK provides a list of symptoms that are useful in identifying prosopagnosia in young children. The site provides advice to parents, teachers, and others who suspect a child may be face blind.

Nancy Kanwisher is a highly regarded brain science researcher. The following TED Talk begins with a presentation of some of her research on face blindness.

Kanwisher, N. (March, 2014). A neural portrait of the human mind. TED Talks. Retrieved 10/5/2014 from Learn more about Nancy Kanwisher and her research lab at MIT from the website This site contains a number of her brain science talks.

At the current time, face blindness is considered to be an incurable neurological disorder. A 5/5/2014 Google search of the term face blindness test produced over 5.8 million hits.

People with face blindness develop a variety of coping mechanisms. See a video featuring Oliver Sacks, a well known neuroscientist, and artist Chuck Close at Quoting from the website:

Oliver and Chuck—both born with the condition known as Face Blindness—have spent their lives decoding who is saying hello to them. You can sit down with either man, talk to him for an hour, and if he sees you again just fifteen minutes later, he will have no idea who you are. (Unless you have a very squeaky voice or happen to be wearing the same odd purple hat.) Chuck and Oliver tell Robert what it's like to live with Face Blindness in a conversation recorded for the World Science Festival, and they describe two very different ways of coping with their condition (which may be more common than we think).

Brain-Computer Interface

This section is a work in progress. Here is a video that provides an introduction to current work being done.

Leuthardt, E. (11/1/2014). Mind, Powered. The Scientist. Retrieved 11/17/2014 from In this short video, neuroscientist Eric Leuthardt talks about the science and technology behind brain-computer interfaces.

Brain Growth Spurts and Cognitive Development

Brain science has been a relatively hot topic in education for more than 20 years. For example, the ASCD published a pair of articles on this topic in the February, 1984, issue of Educational Leadership. These articles focused on brain growth spurts and argued that these growth spurts were times when the brain was extra conducive to learning.

These arguments have continued over the years. Kurt Fischer is a world class educator and brain scientist in the Harvard Graduate School of Education. He discusses brain growth spurts in [ three short videos. Quoting from the first of these videos:

Hi, I'm Kurt Fischer. I study cognitive development and learning, and how they connect to brain development. In research over the years, we came up with a remarkable surprise, which is a discovery of a close connection between the growth cycles of cognition, how we develop new capacities, and the growth cycles of brain activity. I'm going to tell you about that today.
So in cognitive development, there's a series of capacities that emerge during the childhood and adolescent years. And these changes, these emerging capacities can be seen very simply when you look at the best performance that children show. You look at how they solve problems or how they learn in situations where they're given support by a good teacher, by a parent, by a good textbook, helping them to do their best in the task or problem.

The Charlie Rose Brain Series (2009-2012) has five videos, each about 55 minutes in length. They provide an excellent introduction to brain science and brains. Retrieved 10/8/2012 from For a discussion of these videos, see Quoting from the website:

Charlie Rose Brain Series Episode One. Tonight’s introductory topic: The Great Mysteries of the Human Brain: consciousness, free will, perception, cognition, emotion and memory with a roundtable of brain researchers. Co-Host Eric Kandel from Columbia University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Cornelia Bargmann from Rockefeller University, Tony Movshon from New York University, John Searle from University of California Berkeley and Gerald Fischbach of the Simons Foundation.

A 2009 U.S. government article provides a good overview of the topic of brain growth spurts. For example, here is part of what it says about the newborn baby:

The raw material of the brain is the nerve cell, called the neuron. When babies are born, they have almost all of the neurons they will ever have, more than 100 billion of them. Although research indicates some neurons are developed after birth and well into adulthood, the neurons babies have at birth are primarily what they have to work with as they develop into children, adolescents, and adults.
During fetal development, neurons are created and migrate to form the various parts of the brain. As neurons migrate, they also differentiate, so they begin to "specialize" in response to chemical signals (Perry, 2002). This process of development occurs sequentially from the "bottom up," that is, from the more primitive sections of the brain to the more sophisticated sections (Perry, 2000a). The first areas of the brain to fully develop are the brainstem and midbrain; they govern the bodily functions necessary for life, called the autonomic functions. At birth, these lower portions of the nervous system are very well developed, whereas the higher regions (the limbic system and cerebral cortex) are still rather primitive (ZERO TO THREE, 2009).
Brain development, or learning, is actually the process of creating, strengthening, and discarding connections among the neurons; these connections are called synapses. Synapses organize the brain by forming pathways that connect the parts of the brain governing everything we do—from breathing and sleeping to thinking and feeling. This is the essence of postnatal brain development, because at birth, very few synapses have been formed. The synapses present at birth are primarily those that govern our bodily functions such as heart rate, breathing, eating, and sleeping.
The development of synapses occurs at an astounding rate during children's early years, in response to the young child's experiences. At its peak, the cerebral cortex of a healthy toddler may create 2 million synapses per second (ZERO TO THREE, 2009). By the time children are 3, their brains have approximately 1,000 trillion synapses, many more than they will ever need. Some of these synapses are strengthened and remain intact, but many are gradually discarded. This process of synapse elimination—or pruning—is a normal part of development (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). By the time children reach adolescence, about half of their synapses have been discarded, leaving the number they will have for most of the rest of their lives. Brain development continues throughout the lifespan. This allows us to continue to learn, remember, and adapt to new circumstances (Ackerman, 2007).

Brain Injuries and Cognitive Reserve

The following definition is from the Mayo Clinic:

A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that alters the way your brain functions. Effects are usually temporary but can include headaches and problems with concentration, memory, balance and coordination.
Although concussions usually are caused by a blow to the head, they can also occur when the head and upper body are violently shaken. These injuries can cause a loss of consciousness, but most concussions do not. Because of this, some people have concussions and don't realize it

Currently there are many research projects on how to prevent concussions, how to reduce the severity of concussions and how treat concussions. The following article indicates that a person's level of education is a factor in recovery from a concussion.

The following definitions of brain reserve and cognitive reserve are quoted from the Wikipedia:

The term cognitive reserve describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain. The mind's resilience is evaluated behaviorally, whereas the neuropathological damage is evaluated histologically, although damage may be estimated using blood-based markers and imaging methods. There are two models that can be used when exploring the concept of "reserve": brain reserve and cognitive reserve. These terms, albeit often used interchangeably in the literature, provide a useful way of discussing the models. Using a computer analogy brain reserve can be seen as hardware and cognitive reserve as software. All these factors are currently believed to contribute to global reserve. Cognitive reserve is commonly used to refer to both brain and cognitive reserves in the literature.

The following article discusses evidence of education level (which builds cognitive reserve) helps in recovery from concussion.

Hamilton, J. (4/23/2014). Education May Help Insulate the Brain Against Traumatic Injury. NPR. Retrieved 4/27/2014 from

Quoting from the document:

A little education goes a long way toward ensuring you'll recover from a serious traumatic brain injury. In fact, people with lots of education are seven times more likely than high school dropouts to have no measurable disability a year later.
"It's a very dramatic difference," says Eric Schneider, an epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins and the lead author of a new study. The finding suggests that people with more education have brains that are better able to "find ways around the damage" caused by an injury, he says.
One reason for the difference may be something known as "cognitive reserve" in the brain, Schneider says. The concept is a bit like physical fitness, he says, which can help a person recover from a physical injury. Similarly, a person with a lot of cognitive reserve may be better equipped to recover from a brain injury.

For more on this topic see

Cognitive reserve plays a major role in brain recovery from traumatic injury.

Tucker, A. and Stern, Y. (6/1/2011). Cognitive Reserve in Aging. US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 4/27/2014 from

Here is the abstract of the research paper:

Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related problems.

Quoting from the paper:

There are two kinds of reserve that have been reported to make independent and interactive contributions to preserving functioning in the face of brain injury: brain reserve and cognitive reserve. Brain reserve refers to quantitative measures such as brain size [12] or neuronal count [13]. Those with more brain reserve tend to have better clinical outcomes for any given level of pathology [14, 15] although for a negative report and dissenting view see [16]. According to the brain reserve model, there is some threshold at which clinical deficits will become apparent and those individuals with more brain reserve require more pathology to reach that threshold. That is, in the case of Alzheimer’s for example, the disease will progress longer and more pathology will accumulate before deficits will be seen in those that start out with a bigger brain and/or more neurons.
Cognitive reserve, by contrast, refers to how flexibly and efficiently one can make use of available brain reserve [28]. Standard proxies for cognitive reserve include education [29] and IQ [30] although this has expanded to include literacy [31, 32], occupational attainment [27, 33, 34], engagement in leisure activities [35–37], and the integrity of social networks [38, 39].

Many different sports carry the threat of concussion. The following article discusses this topic.

Pearl, R. (4/17/2014). A Doctor's Take on Sports-Related Concussions. Forbes. Retrieved 4/27/204 from

Quoting from the article:

“Simply put, a concussion is caused by a blow or jolt to the head or body that disrupts the function of the brain,” Dr. Umphrey said. “The paradox of a concussion is that initial symptoms often appear quite mild but can lead to significant and lifelong impairment.”
Still, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that as many as 3.8 million sports-related traumatic brain injuries occur in the United States each year, most of which go unreported and untreated.
The CDC has clarified the impact that this complex pathological and physiological process has on the brain and provided treatment recommendations. Neurologists and sports medicine physicians have started to recognize that when the brain is not given enough time to heal from injury, concussions produce a wide range of chronic problems that affect the way individuals think, learn and act. [Bold added for emphasis.]
The latest and most widely accepted treatment guidelines for concussions are based on the Consensus Statement on Concussions in Sport created at the fourth “International Conference on Concussion in Sport” in Zurich.

Building Computer Models of the Human Brain

Modeling the human brain is certainly one of the grand challenges in the field of artificial intelligence. See and Some day—perhaps several decades from now—humans may succeed in building a computer that has the cognitive capabilities of a human brain.

You might wonder why such forecasts are for quite far into the future, and accompanied by "we may succeed." After all, we have built a computer system that can play chess better than a world chess champion, and we have built a computer system that can play the TV game show Jeopardy better that human champions in the game. See and

These milestone successes depended on using some of the fastest computers of their time, devoting a huge number of human hours to analyzing the specific problems to be solved, developing programs to solve these problems, and limiting the quite narrow range of the problems. These successes were not based on computer programs that have human-like understanding.

There are many other intelligence-related areas in which significant progress is being made. Language translation and voice-to-text input are excellent examples. These problems have been solved at a useful/usable level, but the computer systems have no understanding of the meaning of the text they are processing. See

The following article discusses some current work being done by one of the major brain modeling projects.

IBM News Release(10/2/2013). IBM Teams With Leading Universities to Advance Research in Cognitive Systems. Retrieved 10/2/2013 from Here are several quotes from the document:
IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced a collaborative research initiative with four leading universities to advance the development and deployment of cognitive computing systems–systems like IBM Watson that can learn, reason and help human experts make complex decisions involving extraordinary volumes of fast-moving data.
"IBM has demonstrated with Watson that cognitive computing is real and delivering value today," said Zachary Lemnios, vice president of strategy for IBM Research. "It is already starting to transform the ways clients navigate big data and is creating new insights in healthcare, how research can be conducted and how companies can support their customers. But much additional research is needed to identify the systems, architectures and process technologies to support a new computing model that enables systems and people to work together across any domain of expertise."
"I believe that cognitive systems technologies will make it possible to connect people and computers in new ways so that—collectively—they can act more intelligently than any person, group, or computer has ever done before," said Thomas Malone, Director of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence and the Patrick J. McGovern Professor of Management, MIT Sloan School of Management. "I am excited to be working with IBM and these other universities to understand better how to harness these new forms of collective intelligence."

Ray Kurzweil has long been a leader in brain modeling. See Here is an article by him that indicates where we were in 2010:

Kurzweil, Ray (7/28/2010). IBM Scientists Create Most Comprehensive Map of the Brain's Network. Retrieved 8/2/2010 from Quoting from the article:
The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) published Tuesday a landmark paper entitled “Network architecture of the long-distance pathways in the macaque brain” (an open-access paper) by Dharmendra S. Modha (IBM Almaden) and Raghavendra Singh (IBM Research-India) with major implications for reverse-engineering the brain and developing a network of cognitive-computing chips.
“We have successfully uncovered and mapped the most comprehensive long-distance network of the Macaque monkey brain, which is essential for understanding the brain’s behavior, complexity, dynamics and computation,” Dr. Modha says. “We can now gain unprecedented insight into how information travels and is processed across the brain."
“We have collated a comprehensive, consistent, concise, coherent, and colossal network spanning the entire brain and grounded in anatomical tracing studies that is a stepping stone to both fundamental and applied research in neuroscience and cognitive computing.”
The scientists focused on the long-distance network of 383 brain regions and 6,602 long-distance brain connections that travel through the brain’s white matter, which are like the “interstate highways” between far-flung brain regions, he explained, while short-distance gray matter connections (based on neurons) constitute “local roads” within a brain region and its sub-structures.
Their research builds upon a publicly available database called Collation of Connectivity data on the Macaque brain (CoCoMac), which compiles anatomical tracing data from over 400 scientific reports from neuroanatomists published over the last half-century.

Click here for a 2013 article that provides background about Kurzweil and some of his forecasts for the future of brain modeling. Quoting from this article:

"Change is the new constant" is a saying you hear a lot at technology conferences. "But change is not constant," said inventor and futurologist Ray Kurzweil at a conference I attended last week. The world is changing more and more rapidly, fueled by information technology. Unlike some of us given to mouthing such statements, the recipient of the National Medal of Technology had his argument teed up.
Consider our first information technology, he said—spoken language. A byproduct of our large brains, human language took hundreds of thousands of years to evolve. Written language, the next big advance in information technology, took tens of thousands of years to develop. The printing press took 400 years to become commonplace. The telephone, 50 years. The mass uptake of the cell phone by Western populations took seven years, according to his calculations, social networks even less time.
The big change to come? Look within. Our neocortex—the convoluted rind of the brain responsible for this sustained technology evolution—has already been extended by our computer-enabled access to information. In the next few decades, said Kurzweil, author of How to Create a Mind, our brains will essentially grow by harnessing the power of information technology. Why, if we can hang on long enough, information technology will extend not only our brains but our lives, perhaps forever.


I know that it is possible to teach children to think creatively and that it can be done in a variety of ways. I have done it. I have seen my wife to it; I have seen other excellent teachers do it. I have seen children who had seemed previously to be “non-thinkers” learn to think creatively, and have seen them continuing for years thereafter to think creatively. (Ellis Paul Torrance; American psychologist; 1915–2003.)

E. Paul Torrance was a pioneer and world leader in the study of creativity. The 1972 quote given above reflects the insights of a scholar whose major accomplishments include 1,871 publications: 88 books; 256 parts of books or cooperative volumes; 408 journal articles; 538 reports, manuals, tests, etc.; 162 articles in popular journals or magazines; 355 conference papers; and 64 forewords or prefaces. E. Paul Torrance (1915-2003 was a pioneer in the study of creativity. Learn more about Torrance from the following article:

Hébert, T.P., et al. (February, 2002). E. Paul Torrance: His Life, Accomplishments, and Legacy. Retrieved 9/3/2014 from

Quoting from the article: His [Torrance’s] interests in creativity began as he encountered difficult students as a high school teacher. Sensing their creative potential, he perceived these students to be more than problem children and wanted to understand more about the characteristics of creative individuals. … He developed a series of instruments designed to measure creativity, the most widely known, The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. In addition, he also began his longitudinal study of highly creative elementary school students. [After teaching at the University of Minnesota] Torrance left Minnesota to return to Georgia, where he spent the remainder of his career in higher education at the University of Georgia. Torrance refined his creativity assessments, created the Future Problem Solving Program, developed the Incubation Model of Teaching, and continued his study of the Minnesota participants in his longitudinal study of creativity.

It is clear that some people are more creative than others. However, it requires a lot of creativity just to participate in a meaningful back-and-forth conversation. This takes a lot of creativity. So, a good place to start the study of human creativity is to assume that every intact human brain is quite creative and has a great capacity for learning.

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is created (such as an idea, a joke, an artistic or literary work, a painting or musical composition, a solution, an invention etc.). The ideas and concepts so conceived can then manifest themselves in any number of ways, but most often, they become something we can see, hear, smell, touch, or taste. The range of scholarly interest in creativity includes a multitude of definitions and approaches … [and study of] the potential for fostering creativity through education and training, especially as augmented by technology, and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of learning and teaching processes.

There is a substantial literature about creativity. My 8/9/2014 Google search of creativity returned more than 60 million hits. See, for example, the Torrance Center for Creativity and Talent Development. Quoting from the website:

The Torrance Center™ for Creativity and Talent Development is a service, research, and instructional center concerned with the identification and development of creative potential and with gifted and future studies. Its goals are to investigate, implement, and evaluate techniques for enhancing creative thinking and to facilitate national and international systems that support creative development.

Declining Creativity?

There is some evidence that the average level of student creativity is declining.

Retner, R. (8/12/2011). Not Your Imagination: Kids Today Really Are Less Creative, Study Says. Today Parenting. Retrieved 10/3 2011 from

Quoting from the article:

It sounds like the complaint of a jaded adult: Kids these days are narrow-minded and just not as creative as they used to be.
But researchers say they are finding exactly that. In a 2010 study of about 300,000 creativity tests going back to the 1970s, Kyung Hee Kim, a creativity researcher at the College of William and Mary, found creativity has decreased among American children in recent years. Since 1990, children have become less able to produce unique and unusual ideas. They are also less humorous, less imaginative and less able to elaborate on ideas, Kim said.
Interestingly, scores on the Torrance test have been decreasing while SAT scores are increasing. However, better test scores do not necessarily translate to improved creativity, Kim said. You can do well on a test by studying a lot, but it won't encourage original thinking. [Bold added for emphasis.]

Learn more about Dr. Kyung-Hee Kim at the website The site contains several videos of Dr. Kim discussing her research on creativity. Quoting from this website:

In 2010, her study “the Creativity Crisis (Kim, 2011)," featured in Newsweek opened a national and international dialogue on the importance of creativity in education and business. The study showed the United States has been experiencing a decline in creativity since 1990. Previously in 2005, she dispelled the myth that intelligence and creativity are the same, and her meta-analysis showed that there is only a negligible relationship between IQ and creativity test scores (Kim, 2005).

The most recent Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is designed to measure 15 year olds in math, science, and reading. In addition, it is designed to measure creative problem solving. This is discussed in the following article:

Yettick, H. (4/1/2014). U.S. Students Score Above Average on First PISA Problem-Solving Exam. Education Week. Retrieved 9/2/2014 from Quoting from the article:
U.S. 15-year-olds scored above average on a first-of-its-kind international assessment that measured creative problem-solving skills.
However, their mean scores were significantly lower than those earned in ten of the 44 countries and economies that took the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 problem-solving assessment.
The assessment, which was the subject of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report released Tuesday, defined creative problem-solving as the ability to "understand and resolve problem situations where a method of solution is not immediately obvious." Worldwide, a representative sample of 85,000 students took the exam, including 1,273 U.S. students in 162 schools. [Bold added for emphasis.]
U.S. performance was especially strong on tasks designed to measure interactive problem solving, which requires students to find some of the information they need on their own.
Creativity and Mental Illness

Nancy Andreasen has spent many years doing research on possible relationships between creativity and mental illness. Her work is explored in a PBS video:

Woodruff, Judy (7/25/2014). Connecting strength and vulnerability of the creative brain. PBS Newshour. Retrieved 8/9/2014 (8:37)

Quoting from the website:

Why have so many creative minds suffered from mental illness? Nancy Andreasen, Andrew H. Woods Chair of Psychiatry at the University of Iowa, has devoted decades of study to the physical differences in the brains of writers and other highly accomplished individuals. Produced in partnership with The Atlantic magazine, Judy Woodruff visits Andreasen to explore her work.

There also is an article by Andreasen in The Atlantic:

Andreasen, Nancy (6/25/2014). Secrets of the creative brain. The Atlantic. Retrieved 8/9/2014 from Quoting from Andreasen's article:
I have spent much of my career focusing on the neuroscience of mental illness, but in recent decades I’ve also focused on what we might call the science of genius, trying to discern what combination of elements tends to produce particularly creative brains. What, in short, is the essence of creativity? Over the course of my life, I’ve kept coming back to two more-specific questions: What differences in nature and nurture can explain why some people suffer from mental illness and some do not? And why are so many of the world’s most creative minds among the most afflicted? My latest study, for which I’ve been scanning the brains of some of today’s most illustrious scientists, mathematicians, artists, and writers, has come closer to answering this second question than any other research to date.
Teaching Creativity

The following IAE Blog entry discusses the importance of creativity in learning to ask researchable questions in science. Such question asking and problem posing are essential components in each area of human study.

Moursund, D. (3/31/2011). Teaching for creativity in science. IAE Blog. Retrieved 8/9/2014 from

Quoting from this entry:

The following article provides some interesting insights into science education and fostering creativity among science students.
Giddings, M. (3/29/2011). What kind of scientist are you? The Scientist. Retrieved 3/31/2011 from
The article focuses on graduate school education, but I think it is applicable at all levels of science education. First, a quote from the author that helps to identify a science education problem, that of a graduate student defending his or her chosen dissertation topic:
Yet in all the questioning posed by the serious professors, and in all the fear that the student was experiencing, there was an elephant in the room that nobody discussed: was the hypothesis good enough to begin with? Were the questions really worth asking? If they weren’t, how would he improve them?
Some students had flunked out at the written prelim stage due to having poorly constructed hypotheses and questions. Sometimes it was difficult to separate bad writing from inadequate ideas. But in every case, the students were sent back to do it all over again, without a lot of guidance on a key point: how do you come up with really good questions? [Bold added for emphasis.]

There has been considerable research on teaching and fostering creativity. See, for example, the Iowa State University Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning. Quoting from this site:

To make the most of student’s creativity, plan assignments and activities that challenge students but do not overwhelm them. Generally, learning is “inhibited by threat and enhanced by challenge” (Caine, xvii). Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi‘s pioneering work on the concept of “flow” persuaded him that that seemingly effortless creative state occurs when high levels of ability and high levels of challenge. For Csikszentmihalyi, achieving a state of “flow” requires that the actor (or learner) have clear goals and expectations, a degree of skill and chance to focus on practicing the skill, and direct and immediate feedback.
Creativity in the Arts

The following Information Age Education Newsletter discusses creativity in the arts.

Stauter, S. (January, 2012). Creating an Appropriate 21st Century Education: The Positive Roles That the Arts, Arts Education, and Creative Obsession Will Play. IAE Newsletter. Retrieved 8/15/2014 from Quoting from the article:
Our brain's basic task is to plan, regulate, and predict our movements, and to predict the movements of others and objects. Humans often add aesthetics to various movements and call it the Arts, a phenomenon deeply imbedded in human psyche and history. The artist articulates the culture—defining and challenging in ways that reflect personal truth but also become aesthetic cultural hallmarks. Those who wish to understand the history of a culture need to listen to its music, observe its clothing and architecture, and read its plays, poetry, and literature—all of which describe humans who are moving physically, emotionally, and intellectually.

Critical Thinking

In any discipline of study, problem solving includes:

  • Question situations: recognizing, posing, clarifying, and answering questions.
  • Problem situations: recognizing, posing, clarifying, and then solving problems.
  • Task situations: recognizing, posing, clarifying, and accomplishing tasks.
  • Decision situations: recognizing, posing, clarifying, and then making good decisions.
  • Using higher-order critical, creative, wise, and foresightful thinking to do all of the above. Often the results are shared, demonstrated, or used as a product, performance, or presentation.

The last of the five bulleted items above is quite a bit different from the first four. It helps to define maturity in problem solving. An increasing level of math maturity is evidenced by an increasing ability to use higher-order critical, creative, wise, and foresightful thinking in dealing with math problems and math related problems.

In general, the scholars listed above agree that critical thinking entails an interpretation or analysis, usually followed by evaluation or judgment. It requires that learners have mastered some subject matter to think about, so it can't be done in a knowledge vacuum. It is difficult and unnatural, and it takes time and effort to learn. And it involves not only cognition but also character and metacognition/self-regulated learning. This means that learners must be willing to pursue "truth" to wherever it may lie, persist through challenges, evaluate their own thinking fairly, and abandon faulty thinking for new and more valid ways of reasoning. These are intellectual "virtues" that don't come easily to people and must be cultivated.
The scholars also generally agree that students learn critical thinking by answering challenging, open-ended questions that require genuine inquiry, analysis, or assessment.

Here is another good reference:

Schrock, J. Benko, S. (1/12/2015). Using fundamental concepts and essential questions to promote critical thinking. Retrieved 1/14/2015 from Quoting from the document:

Could your students identify the most important concepts in your discipline? Do they leave your class understanding these most fundamental concepts, including the ability to reason using these concepts to answer essential questions? Do your students become critical thinkers who connect concepts and practices in your course with other courses? With their future professional lives?
Traditional ways of teaching and the customary use of textbooks can hinder the development of critical thinking and meaningful learning. Instructors often resort to lecture because of its efficiency in covering content. However, student attention often wanes quickly, and students end up memorizing notes they wrote down during the lecture and developing only a superficial understanding of course material. Also problematic is that textbooks highlight more concepts than students can possibly learn in a meaningful way. Many textbooks have as many as 45 concepts, or more, per chapter. In a text with, for example, 15 chapters, that is approximately 700 concepts. Often students have absolutely no idea which of the 700 concepts is more important than any other. As a result, they try to memorize as many as possible and leave the course with little deep understanding of any. Students can, however, develop the skills they need to find connections among concepts, assess their relative importance in the discipline, and then use them to think critically about a wide variety of concepts, principles, ideas, and questions. You can facilitate this process by structuring your course around the fundamental and powerful concepts, and essential questions of the discipline.

The following article argues that our overall educational system is not doing well in its efforts to increase students' critical thinking ability.

Wolpert, Stuart (1/27/09). Is Technology Producing a Decline in Critical Thinking and Analysis? UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 1/29/2009: Quoting from the report:
As technology has played a bigger role in our lives, our skills in critical thinking and analysis have declined, while our visual skills have improved, according to research by Patricia Greenfield, UCLA distinguished professor of psychology and director of the Children's Digital Media Center, Los Angeles.
Learners have changed as a result of their exposure to technology, says Greenfield, who analyzed more than 50 studies on learning and technology, including research on multi-tasking and the use of computers, the Internet and video games. Her research was published this month WHEN? in the journal Science.
Reading for pleasure, which has declined among young people in recent decades, enhances thinking and engages the imagination in a way that visual media such as video games and television do not, Greenfield said.
Visual intelligence has been rising globally for 50 years, Greenfield said. In 1942, people's visual performance, as measured by a visual intelligence test known as Raven's Progressive Matrices, went steadily down with age and declined substantially from age 25 to 65. By 1992, there was a much less significant age-related disparity in visual intelligence, Greenfield said. "In a 1992 study, visual IQ stayed almost flat from age 25 to 65."

Curious Brain

“The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds for the purpose of satisfying it afterwards.” (Anatole France; French novelist and poet; 1844-1924.)
“It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.” (Albert Einstein; German-born theoretical physicist and 1921 Nobel Prize winner; 1879-1955.)

Curiosity is a strong desire to know or learn something. A child’s healthy brain has a tremendous capability to learn. It is naturally curious and is always learning—and it learns at an amazing rate.

There is substantial research on roles that curiosity plays in learning. Click here for a short summary article summarizing some of the findings. Quoting from that article:

Curiosity may have killed the cat, but it's good for the student. That's the conclusion of a new [2011]study published in Perspectives in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The authors show that curiosity is a big part of academic performance. In fact, personality traits like curiosity seem to be as important as intelligence in determining how well students do in school. [Bold added for emphasis.]

Curiosity is a "natural" driving force, and some people seem to much more of it than others. And, as Einstein points out in his quote given above, our educational system can have a strong impact on children's level of curiosity.

As I (Dave Moursund) reread the previous paragraph, I became curious about what the Web might be able to tell me about curiosity and education. My 8/16/2014 Google search of the expression curiosity education produced over 37 million hits! The second in the list of hits refers to the following TED Talk that I have viewed several times.

Robinson, Ken (February, 2006). How schools kill creativity. Retrieved 8/16/2014 from

In revisiting the site, I noticed that the 19 minute talk has had more than 27 million views and it includes subtitles in 58 languages. This data suggests to me that curiosity is an educational topic of worldwide interest.

After giving several examples of children being creative, Robinson continues:

What these things [stories] have in common is that kids will take a chance. If they don't know, they'll have a go. Am I right? They're not frightened of being wrong. Now, I don't mean to say that being wrong is the same thing as being creative. What we do know is, if you're not prepared to be wrong, you'll never come up with anything original—if you're not prepared to be wrong. And by the time they get to be adults, most kids have lost that capacity. They have become frightened of being wrong. And we run our companies like this, by the way. We stigmatize mistakes. And we're now running national education systems where mistakes are the worst thing you can make. And the result is that we are educating people out of their creative capacities. [Bold added for emphasis.]

Here is a reference from a brief article in Psychology Today:

Austin, M. (4/3/2014). Intellectual Curiosity. Psychology Today. Retrieved 8/15/2014 from Quoting from the article:
As children, we were naturally curious about almost everything. This may have annoyed our parents and teachers, but it is also an essential part of human development. If we want to grow intellectually, morally, socially, and spiritually, we need to ask questions and seek answers. We need intellectual curiosity. At some point, however, many of us lost this initial curiosity. Perhaps we feared looking unintelligent or ignorant, or perhaps a peer in school mocked us for our curiosity. Fortunately, it is not too difficult to retrieve this trait.
What is intellectual curiosity? The intellectually curious person has a deep and persistent desire to know. She asks and seeks answers to the “why” questions. And she doesn’t stop asking at a surface level, but instead asks probing questions in order to peel back layers of explanation to get at the foundational ideas concerning a particular issue.

Are you curious about what makes others curious? See: (n.d.). What makes you curious? Answered by Tiffany Shlain, Dr. Michio Kaku and 125 others. Retrieved 8/15/2024 from Here are a few brief quotes from this website:
Dr. Michio Kaku: I've often wondered, "Where did it all come from?" At night, when you look at the stars, you say to yourself, "Wow, the universe is incredible. But where did it come from?" I first bumped up against this when I was a child.
Dr. Dean Ornish: I don't know what makes me curious. I'm curious because the antithesis is being bored, and I think being curious is a lot more fun. I'm always interested in understanding, really, the underlying cause of what causes things to happen. If there's anything that really ties all of my work together, it's that very simple question that I'm curious about, which is, "What is the cause?" There's usually a chain of causation: what causes this and that, and what's behind that, and what's behind that? Then, the questions get very interesting. If we don't treat the underlying cause of a problem -- any problem, whether it's a medical problem or a social or a health policy issue -- then the same problem tends to come back again.

Dr. Astro Teller: What makes me curious is the very fact that I don't know things. While that comment sounds self-referential, it’s more about my desire to learn and the stimulation and satisfaction that ensues. Curiosity is my prime mover and motivation, as opposed to the result of my observations of what happens to me. I don't need love or money in order to be curious. Curiosity is what drives me to participate more fully in my personal and my business life.

Are you interested in assessing your own level of curiosity? See:

Deitering, Anne-Marie (2/6/2014). Curiosity, Browsing & Online Environments–Further Reading. Retrieved 8/15/2014 from
Deitering, Anne-Marie (2/7/2014). Curiosity Self-Assessment-scoring. Retrieved 8/15/2014 from

This site provides details for scoring a free 30-question self-assessment instrument from Oregon State University that is available at Quoting from the Deitering site:

There is more than one type of curiosity identified in the literature, and we decided to focus on 3 of those in this instrument: epistemic, perceptual and interpersonal.
Epistemic curiosity is triggered by a drive to know about things — to know about concepts and ideas, and to understand how things work. This is the type of curiosity that we think probably comes to mind first when people think of school-related work. Some of the items on the self-assessment that point to this type of curiosity are:
* When I see a riddle I am interested in trying to solve it.
* I enjoy discussing abstract concepts
Perceptual curiosity is triggered by a drive to know how things feel, taste, smell, look, and sound. Some of the items that point to this one are:
* I enjoy trying different foods.
* When I see new fabrics, I want to touch and feel it.
We (the general “we” here) don’t usually think about the types of questions that would include a touching or perceiving component when we think of class-related research.
Interpersonal curiosity is triggered by a desire to know more about other people. Some of the items connected to this type have a snooping or spying connotation to them, and others focus more on the type of curiosity that happens during direct interactions with others:
* People open up to me about how they feel.
* I enjoy going into other houses to see how people live.

Here is a book on the topic of curiosity:

Leslie, I. (August, 2014). Curious. The Desire to Know and Why Your Future Depends On It. Basic Books.

Quoting from the publisher's description of the book:

"I have no special talents," said Albert Einstein. "I am only passionately curious."
Everyone is born curious. But only some retain the habits of exploring, learning, and discovering as they grow older. Those who do so tend to be smarter, more creative, and more successful. So why are many of us allowing our curiosity to wane?
In Curious, Ian Leslie makes a passionate case for the cultivation of our "desire to know." Just when the rewards of curiosity have never been higher, it is misunderstood, undervalued, and increasingly monopolized by a cognitive elite. A "curiosity divide" is opening up.
This divide is being exacerbated by the way we use the Internet. Thanks to smartphones and tools such as Google and Wikipedia, we can answer almost any question instantly. But does this easy access to information guarantee the growth of curiosity? No—quite the opposite. Leslie argues that true curiosity the sustained quest for understanding that begets insight and innovation—is in fact at risk in a wired world.
Drawing on fascinating research from psychology, economics, education, and business, Curious looks at what feeds curiosity and what starves it, and finds surprising answers. Curiosity isn't, as we're encouraged to think, a gift that keeps on giving. It is a mental muscle that atrophies without regular exercise and a habit that parents, schools, and workplaces need to nurture. [Bold added for emphasis.]

Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs

Caffeine is an example of a widely used cognitive-enhancing drug. Here is an example of research on caffeine and long-term memory:

Makin, Simon (1/12/2014). Drink Two Expressos to Enhance Long-term Memory. NewScientist. Retrieved 2/20/2014 from

The article focuses on human use of caffeine. Quoting from the article:

To investigate further, Michael Yassa, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Irvine, recruited 160 adults who normally consume only minimal amounts of caffeine. The volunteers first studied images of objects, before randomly receiving a pill containing either 200 milligrams of caffeine – equivalent to two espressos – or a placebo. Receiving the caffeine after studying the images helped to isolate the effect of caffeine on memory, as you wouldn't expect alertness to matter at this point.
He concludes that caffeine enhances long-term memory by improving the process of memory consolidation. "This doesn't mean people should only drink coffee after they've studied, and not before," says Yassa. "I think you would get the boost regardless." That's because the process of consolidation is likely to begin as soon as new memories form.
However, caffeine isn't much use once consolidation is finished. The team ran a second experiment in which caffeine wasn't administered until one hour before the memory test, to check for any effects on memory retrieval. They found no such effect. "So let's say you studied without coffee and decided to drink a cup right before an exam – that's not going to help you retrieve memories better," says Yassa.

Caffeine research has been conducted with other animals. Quoting again from the article:

The results have impressed Geraldine Wright of Newcastle University, UK, who last year showed the link between caffeine and long-term memory in honeybees.
Wright's team found a similar effect in bees. "[But] in high concentrations it looks like [caffeine] is bad for learning – so don't drink too much!" says Wright's colleague Julie Mustard at Arizona State University in Phoenix.

The following article summarizes some important ideas about the growing availability and use of a variety of cognitive-enhancing drugs.

Kaplan, Karen, and Gellene, Denise (12/20/07). Brain Boosters: The Mental Edge? The Seattle Times. retrieved 12/20/07: Quoting from the article:
The medicine cabinet of so-called cognitive enhancers also includes Ritalin, commonly given to children for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and beta blockers, such as the heart drug Inderal. Researchers have been investigating the drug Aricept, which is normally used to slow the decline of Alzheimer's patients.
They are all just precursors to the blockbuster drug that labs are racing to develop. "Whatever company comes out with the first memory pill is going to put Viagra to shame," said University of Pennsylvania bioethicist Paul Root Wolpe.
The use of cognitive-enhancing drugs has been well-documented among high-school and college students. A 2005 survey of more than 10,000 college students found 4 percent to 7 percent of them tried ADHD drugs at least once to remain focused on exams or pull all-nighters. At some colleges, more than one-quarter of students surveyed said they had sampled the pills.

According to this article by Steve Bird, student use of such drugs is growing rapidly.

Bird, Steve (10/9/2013). The Dangers for Students Addicted to Brain Viagra: Drugs Claimed to Boost Your Intellect Are Sweeping Universities – But at What Cost? Mail Online. Retrieved 11/2/2013 from Quoting from this article:
Generations of students have depended on nothing more potent than gallons of black coffee to enable them to burn the midnight oil when studying. But now a far more sinister stimulant is sweeping campuses.
With unemployment among graduates at record levels, more and more students are turning to 'cognitive enhancing drugs’ in the hope of boosting their grades and therefore their job prospects. The most popular of these drugs is Modafinil, a prescription-only stimulant used by doctors to treat patients suffering from the sleeping disorder narcolepsy.
Indeed, a new inquiry suggests that up to a quarter of students at some leading universities have experimented with it.
As a result, a highly profitable black market has developed in this and other prescription-only medicines designed to treat acute neurological conditions.
Modafinil pills are being sold for as little as 50p each and have been proven to improve memory by 10 per cent. They keep users alert and awake, increasing their ability to concentrate and process information.

Consciousness and Self-awareness

What is consciousness? What might it mean to say that we understand what consciousness is and what makes/creates consciousness? This is one of the most challenging questions in cognitive neuroscience.

If such questions interest you, then you may enjoy the following article:

Pinker, Steven (1/19/2007). The Mystery of Consciousness. Retrieved 3/10/09:,9171,1580394,00.html. Quoting from the article:
It shouldn't be surprising that research on consciousness is alternately exhilarating and disturbing. No other topic is like it. As René Descartes noted, our own consciousness is the most indubitable thing there is. The major religions locate it in a soul that survives the body's death to receive its just deserts or to meld into a global mind. For each of us, consciousness is life itself, the reason Woody Allen said, "I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it by not dying." And the conviction that other people can suffer and flourish as each of us does is the essence of empathy and the foundation of morality.
The Easy Problem, then, is to distinguish conscious from unconscious mental computation, identify its correlates in the brain and explain why it evolved. Substantial progress is occurring in this area.
The Hard Problem is explaining how subjective experience arises from neural computation. The problem is hard because no one knows what a solution might look like or even whether it is a genuine scientific problem in the first place. And not surprisingly, everyone agrees that the hard problem (if it is a problem) remains a mystery.

The following short article discusses a possible breakthrough in brain research on consciousness.

Koch, C. (10/16/2014). Neuronal "Superhub" Might Generate Consciousness. Scientific American. Retrieved 10/26/2014 from Quoting from this article:
Led by Mohamad Z. Koubeissi, an associate professor in the department of neurology at George Washington University, the clinical team made a remarkable observation: electrically stimulating a single site with a fairly large current abruptly impaired consciousness in 10 out of 10 trials—the patient stared blankly ahead, became unresponsive to commands and stopped reading. As soon as the stimulation stopped, consciousness returned, without the patient recalling any events during the period when she was out. Note that she did not become unconscious in the usual sense, because she could still continue to carry out simple behaviors for a few seconds if these were initiated before the stimulation started—behaviors such as making repetitive tongue or hand movements or repeating a word. Koubeissi was careful to monitor electrical activity throughout her brain to confirm that episodes of loss of consciousness did not accompany a seizure.
Two aspects of this patient's case had never been seen before. First, no abrupt and specific cessation and resumption of consciousness have previously been reported, despite decades of electrically stimulating the forebrain of awake patients in the operating room. Depending on the location of the stimulating electrode, patients usually do not feel anything in particular. Less frequently, a patient may report flashes of light, smells or some difficult-to-verbalize body feelings, or perhaps even a specific memory from long ago that the electric current evokes. Or the patient will twitch a finger or a muscle. But this case was different. Here consciousness as a whole appeared to be turned off and then on again. Second, it happened only at a single place, in the white matter close to the claustrum and the cortex. Because electrical stimulation of the nearby insula is not known to elicit a loss of consciousness, the researchers implicated the claustrum. [Bold added for emphasis.]

Here is a free Information Age Education book on the topic of consciousness and morality:

Sylwester, R., & Moursund, D., eds. (2013). Consciousness and Morality: Recent Research Developments. Eugene, OR: Information Age Education. Free download of this book. Microsoft Word: PDF:

Declining Cognitive Development

The following article reports on a large scale longitudinal study of cognitive development in England.

Crace, John (1/24/2006). Children Are Less Able than They Used to Be. The Guardian. Retrieved 6/21/09: Quoting from the article:
New research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and conducted by Michael Shayer, professor of applied psychology at King's College, University of London, concludes that 11- and 12-year-old children in year 7 are "now on average between two and three years behind where they were 15 years ago," in terms of cognitive and conceptual development.
"It's a staggering result," admits Shayer, whose findings will be published next year in the British Journal of Educational Psychology. "Before the project started, I rather expected to find that children had improved developmentally. This would have been in line with the Flynn effect on intelligence tests, which shows that children's IQ levels improve at such a steady rate that the norm of 100 has to be recalibrated every 15 years or so. But the figures just don't lie. We had a sample of over 10,000 children and the results have been checked, rechecked and peer reviewed."

Michael Shayer and others speculate about possible reasons for this decline. For example, perhaps it is due to children spending too much time watching television, playing computer games, and making use of cell phones and social networking systems.

Suppose that a similar decline in general cognitive development (and a corresponding decline in math cognitive development) is occurring for students in the U.S. This would be an indicator that perhaps an increasing number of students are enrolled in math courses that require a level of math cognitive development that is quite a bit above their current skill/ability level. One can argue that such a situation is not supportive of students making good progress in increasing their levels of math maturity.

For a report on more of Shayer's work, click here. Also see:

Shayer, M., & Ginsburg, D. (12/24/2010). Thirty Years On – A Large Anti-Flynn Effect/ (II): 13- and 14-year-olds. Piagetian Tests of Formal Operations Norms 1976–2006/7. Retrieved 10/5/2013 from

Deep Brain Stimulation

Quoting from

The world’s first neurosurgeries took place about 7,000 years ago in South America with the boring of holes into hapless patients’ skulls, a process known as trephination. Practitioners of the day believed the source of neurologic and psychiatric disease to be evil spirits inhabiting the brain, and the way to treat such disorders, they reasoned, was to make holes in the skull and let the evil spirits escape. The procedure was surprisingly common, with as many as 1 percent of skulls at some archaeological sites having these holes.

Over the past 7,000 years we have moved past the "evil spirits" explanations, and have developed a wide variety of approaches to deal with brain pains and other brain disorders. Although we have come a long way, we still have a very long way to go. Deep brain electrical stimulation is currently one of the new approaches that is proving successful. Quoting again from the article:

Today, neurosurgeons are still drilling into the brains of patients suffering from neurologic and psychiatric disorders, but rather than letting evil spirits escape, doctors are putting things in—inserting electrical probes to tame rogue neurons or to stimulate brain regions that are underperforming. This procedure, known as deep-brain stimulation (DBS), was first tried for the treatment of pain in the 1960s, and has since been attempted in patients with numerous other neurologic disorders. DBS is currently approved in the U.S. or Europe for the treatment of essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease, dystonia (a motor disorder that causes extreme twisting and repetitive motions), epilepsy, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The therapy is currently in clinical trials for depression, Alzheimer’s disease, addiction, and more.

Executive Functions of the Brain

Cooper-Kahn, Joyce, & Diet, Laurie (2008). What Is Executive Functioning? LD Online. Retrieved 1/1/2014 from Quoting from the document:

The executive functions are a set of processes that all have to do with managing oneself and one's resources in order to achieve a goal. It is an umbrella term for the neurologically-based skills involving mental control and self-regulation. [The following is a list of executive functions from the article:]
1 Inhibition - The ability to stop one's own behavior at the appropriate time, including stopping actions and thoughts. The flip side of inhibition is impulsivity; if you have weak ability to stop yourself from acting on your impulses, then you are "impulsive." (When Aunt Sue called, it would have made sense to tell her, "Let me check the calendar first. It sounds great, but I just need to look at everybody's schedules before I commit the whole family.")
2 Shift - The ability to move freely from one situation to another and to think flexibly in order to respond appropriately to the situation. (When the question emerged regarding who would watch the cats, Robin was stymied. Her husband, on the other hand, began generating possible solutions and was able to solve the problem relatively easily.)
3 Emotional Control - The ability to modulate emotional responses by bringing rational thought to bear on feelings. (The example here is Robin's anger when confronted with her own impulsive behavior in committing the family before checking out the dates: "Why are you all being so negative?")
4 Initiation - The ability to begin a task or activity and to independently generate ideas, responses, or problem-solving strategies. (Robin thought about calling to check on the date of the reunion, but she just didn't get around to it until her husband initiated the process.)
5 Working memory - The capacity to hold information in mind for the purpose of completing a task. (Robin could not keep the dates of the reunion in her head long enough to put them on the calendar after her initial phone call from Aunt Sue.)
6 Planning/Organization - The ability to manage current and future- oriented task demands. (In this case, Robin lacked the ability to systematically think about what the family would need to be ready for the trip and to get to the intended place at the intended time with their needs cared for along the way.)
7 Organization of Materials - The ability to impose order on work, play, and storage spaces. (It was Robin's job to organize the things needed for the trip. However, she just piled things into the car rather than systematically making checklists and organizing things so important items would be easily accessible, so the space would be used efficiently, and so that people and "stuff" would be orderly and comfortable in the car.)
8 Self-Monitoring - The ability to monitor one's own performance and to measure it against some standard of what is needed or expected. (Despite the fact that they're off to Missouri without knowing how to get there, with almost no planning for what will happen along the way, and without a map, Robin does not understand why her husband is so upset.)

Exercise and the Brain

See the work of John Ratey at Quoting from this website:

John J. Ratey, MD, is an Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, research synthesizer, speaker, and best selling author. An internationally recognized expert in Neuropsychiatry, Dr. Ratey has published over 60 peer reviewed articles, and 8 books published in 14 languages, including the groundbreaking ADD-ADHD “Driven to Distraction” series with Ned Hallowell, MD. With the publication of his most recent book, "Spark-The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain," Dr. Ratey has established himself as one of the world's foremost authorities on the brain-fitness connection. He serves as Adjunct Professor at National Taiwan Sports University and is Reebok's Ambassador for Active Kids.

Click here for an IAE Blog entry discussing physical exercise and the human brain. In brief summary, physical exercise is good for your brain. Schools that are cutting down on recess for students are undermining this important, research-based finding. The following study reports on the value of exercise to both boys and girls, but indicated boys benefit more than girls.

Maleki, N., Madia, J., & Bolt, B. (9/13/2014). More exercise may improve boy's school performance. Retrieved 9/18/2014 from

Here is an article about ADHD and exercise:

Carmody, S. (9/14/2014). Exercise before school may reduce ADHD symptoms in some kids. Michigan Radio. Retrieved 9/18/2014 from Quoting from the site:
Moderate to vigorous exercise in the morning may help children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder be better prepared for the school day.
MSU researchers studied the effects of moderate to vigorous exercise on young school children at-risk of developing ADHD. Credit Steve Carmody / Michigan Radio.
Michigan State University researchers studied 200 kindergarten, first and second grade students for 12 weeks. They found children at-risk for developing ADHD were more attentive in class after exercising.
Alan Smith is the chairperson of MSU’s Department of Kinesiology. He says the study suggests including more physical activity in schools could lessen the effects of ADHD in some children.


Flow is a term coined by psychologist Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyim who was an early proponent of positive psychology. See a 18:55 TED Talk by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi:

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (February, 2004). Flow, the secret to happiness. TED. Retrieved 11/16/2014 from

The following article provides a sense of use of Flow in schools:

Suttie, J. (4/16/2012). Can Schools Help Students Find Flow? Greater Good. Retrieved 11/16/2012 from Quoting from the article:
Since Csikszentmihalyi started studying flow more than 40 years ago, he and other researchers have found that it is associated with high levels of creativity and optimal performance in a wide variety of activities, and that it evokes feelings of happiness and even euphoria. They’ve observed benefits of flow among musicians, mountain climbers, basketball players, scientists, and many others.
You can probably recall times you’ve experienced flow yourself—when you were “in the zone” on a sports field or when you were deeply engaged in a work project and the hours flew by like minutes.
But one place where we might not find too much flow these days, sadly, is in American schools. For years, the learning conditions in classrooms have been practically antithetical to the conditions people need to achieve flow and all the benefits that come with it. Especially in the era of No Child Left Behind and high-stakes testing, schools have often favored regimentation over self-directed learning, making it harder for students to get deeply engaged with topics that interest them. Paradoxically, these trends might be undermining the kind of student achievement they were designed to promote, and could even be causing student burnout. [Bold added for emphasis.]

Quoting from

“The best moments in our lives are not the passive, receptive, relaxing times… The best moments usually occur if a person’s body or mind is stretched to its limits in a voluntary effort to accomplish something difficult and worthwhile” (Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is one of the pioneers of the scientific study of happiness. He was born in Hungary in 1934 and, like many of his contemporaries, he was touched by the Second World War in ways that deeply affected his life and later work. During his childhood, he was put in an Italian prison. It was here, amid the misery and loss of family and friends during the war, that he had his first inkling of his seminal work in the area of flow and optimal experience. In an interview, he noted, “I discovered chess was a miraculous way of entering into a different world where all those things didn’t matter. For hours I’d just focus within a reality that had clear rules and goals” (Sobel, D. Interview with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. January, 1995. Omni).

Personal note from David Moursund: I have experienced flow while doing computer programing and often when I am writing. I have also experienced flow while giving professional talks and while playing games. I have enjoyed reading Csikszentmihalyi's writings.

Games to Enhance Brain Functioning

In recent years, there has been some useful work accomplished in developing computer-based games and other activities designed to help the brain functioning of older people. The underlying theories are "use it or lose it" and the transfer of learning from game environments to other environments.

The following short article reports on a study in which adults ages 50 to 70 each spent 20 hours over a period of a month playing a game. It summarizes some of the progress that had been made by the middle of 2010.

Bartlett, Tom (9/16/2010). Can the Wii Make Your Brain Bigger? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 11/7/2013 from An abstract of the research paper is available at Quoting from the article:
The game "Big Brain Academy" for the Nintendo Wii tests your abilities in five areas: "memory, analysis, number crunching, visual recognition, and quick thinking." According to its promotional material, it allows you to "have fun learning from the comfort of your couch."
First, the bad news: playing the Wii game didn't improve their cognitive and perceptual abilities, according to the tests. On the upside, the subjects did get better at playing "Big Brain Academy." Those Wii skills, however, don't seem to transfer to the non-Wii world.

As you can see, the much hyped Wii game did not produce significant gains in brain functioning.

The Lumosity Human Cognition Project has been heavily advertised. Its website reports, "Researchers have measured improvements in working memory and attention after training." As of 11/7/2013, Lumosity provides some information on 15 completed research projects and 38+ ongoing research projects. Here are brief reports on two of the completed research projects:

A 2013 peer-reviewed study from Dr. Shelli Kesler, an Assistant Professor at the Stanford University School of Medicine, shows that Lumosity training can improve the brain’s executive functions, which are a key driver of everyday quality of life. Dr. Shelli Kesler found that women who completed about 12 weeks of Lumosity training improved significantly on a common neuropsychological test (the WCST) compared to a control group of women that did not train. The training targeted skills such as working memory, verbal fluency, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility.
1,204 students from 40 different schools participated in a semester-long study of Lumosity in the classroom. Students who supplemented their regular curricula with Lumosity training improved more than a control group on a battery of cognitive assessments.

The following article suggests that research on the use of games to improve cognitive functioning is promising but in its infancy:

Walton, Alice G. (9/5/2013). Can Video Games Actually Improve Brain and Cognitive Function? Forbes. Retrieved 11/7/2013 from Quoting from the article:
The cover of Nature this month features a “game changing” study suggesting that video games may improve brain function in certain measurable ways. The games, of course, are specifically designed for this purpose—they’re not off the shelf at the local game shop—and they give the brain’s attention areas a good workout. The research team led by Adam Gazzaley at the University of California, San Francisco say that a similar approach could become a therapeutic tool for people dealing with a range of issues, like ADHD, dementia, autism. All of these have a common denominator—the loss of cognitive control, which includes the closely linked capacities to attend, make decisions, and multitask. The research is still in its baby stages, so it’s too soon to take that bet, but the possibilities of the technology are alluring, and the study’s underlying logic worth paying attention to. [Bold added for emphasis.]

The website reported on the same study as the article mentioned above. The report was somewhat negative and closed with the statement, "There are other studies that show brain training video games actually have no effect on the cognitive performance of players."

The following article is also critical of the research to date:

Olena, Abby (4/21/20140. Does Brain Training Work? The Scientist. Retrieved 4/23/2014 from Quoting from the article:
“Psychologists have been trying to come up with ways to increase intelligence for a very long time,” said D. Zachary Hambrick, a professor of psychology at Michigan State University. “We’ve been interested in increasing intelligence for almost as long as we’ve studied intelligence, which is over a century.”
Psychologist Randall Engle’s group at Georgia Tech has previously shown that working memory capacity is highly correlated with complex learning, problem solving, and general attention control. But he pointed out that this correlation does not mean that by increasing working memory capacity, fluid intelligence can be increased. “This idea that intelligence can be trained would be a great thing if it were true,” Engle said.

The paper then briefly described and commented on an often-quoted 2008 study:

When Engle’s group tried to repeat the findings of the 2008 PNAS paper, “we totally failed to replicate the . . . study,” he said. For the paper that resulted from their efforts, which was published in 2012 in Journal of Experimental Psychology, the researchers taught the same working memory tasks, in which participants were presented with stimuli one right after the other and are asked to recall which occurred a certain number of times previously, to one group of young adults; an adaptive visual search task to a second group; and no task to a control group. The researchers assessed the participants at the beginning, middle, and end of the training programs for measures of cognitive function, including fluid intelligence and multitasking. The groups that practiced the n-back and the visual search tasks improved their performance on those tasks specifically, but the team found no positive transfer to the other cognitive abilities they tested.
“Data obtained so far doesn’t seem to show that working memory capacity was expanded after working memory training,” coauthor Weng-Tink Chooi, who is now a researcher at the Advanced Medical and Dental Institute of the Universiti Sains Malaysia, wrote in an e-mail to The Scientist. “What is more consistently observed is that improvements are noted on the trained task and other tasks that share the same specific skills/processes engaged as the trained task.” [Bold added for emphasis.]

The following article is also critical of Brain Training:

Koenig, R. (01/22/2014). Brain-Training Companies Get Advice from Some Academics, Criticism from Others. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 10/27/2014 from

Quoting from the article:

… brain-game companies entice people to buy subscriptions to their online training programs, many of which promise to increase customers’ "neuroplasticity," "fluid intelligence," and working memory capacity. They even claim to help stave off the effects of aging.
Leading scientists have criticized those promises, though. The loudest objection came on Monday, when the Stanford Center for Longevity and the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, in Berlin, released "A Consensus on the Brain-Training Industry From the Scientific Community," a statement objecting "to the claim that brain games offer consumers a scientifically grounded avenue to reduce or reverse cognitive decline."
Nearly 70 psychology, neuroscience, and gerontology professors signed the document, which has been in the works since a group of scientists met, in April 2013, to discuss their concerns about the burgeoning industry that claims to draw on their research.

For more information about Brain training see:

Moursund, D. (4/24/2014). Does brain training work? IAE Blog. Retrieved 10/27/2014 from

Hippocampus and Memory

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

The a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation. [Bold added for emphasis.]

An overview of learning and memory,is available in:

Byrne, J. (2008 or more recent.). Chapter 7: Learning and Memory. Neuroscience Online. Retrieved 8/18/2014 from Quoting from the chapter:
The analysis of the anatomical and physical bases of learning and memory is one of the great successes of modern neuroscience. Thirty years ago little was known about how memory works, but now we know a great deal. This Chapter will discuss four issues that are central to learning and memory. First, what are the different types of memory? Second, where in the brain is memory located? One possibility is that human memory is similar to the memory chip in a personal computer (PC), which stores all the memory in one location. A second possibility is that our memories are distributed and stored in different regions of the brain. Third, how does memory work? What types of changes occur in the nervous system when a memory is formed and stored, are there particular genes and proteins that are involved in memory, and how can a memory last for a lifetime? Fourth, is the issue of importance to many people, especially as we age: How can memory be maintained and improved, and how can it be fixed when it is broken?
Figure 7.5 illustrates an example of a PET scan of an individual who is performing an object location test. The color code is such that the brighter, redder regions indicate increased brain activity. The most active region is the hippocampus. In discussions of memory, the hippocampus is mentioned repeatedly because it is a major part of the brain involved in declarative memory function.

Chapter 7 also includes information about a patient, Henry Molaison (for years, identified as H.M.), whose hippocampus was surgically removed. Quoting again from the chapter:

Before the operation, H.M. had a fine memory, but after the operation, H.M. had a very severe memory deficit. Specifically, after the operation H.M.'s ability to form any new memories for facts and events was severely impaired; he had great difficulty learning any new vocabulary words; he could not remember what happened the day before. So if H.M. had an interview the day following a previous interview, he would have little or no memory about the interview or events during it. This study clearly indicated that the hippocampus was critical for memory formation. But whereas H.M. had great difficulty forming new memories for facts and events, he still had all of his old memories for facts and events. Specifically, he had all his childhood memories, and all of his memories prior to the operation

Recent research in brain science has greatly improved our understanding of the functions of the hippocampus.

Cherry, Kendra (n.d.). 10 facts about memory. Psychology. Retrieved 8/18/2018 from Quoting from this website:
Because both sides of the brain are symmetrical, the hippocampus can be found in both hemispheres. If one side of the hippocampus is damaged or destroyed, memory function will remain nearly normal as long as the other side is undamaged.
Functioning of the hippocampus can also decline with age. By the time people reach their 80s, they may have lost as much as 20 percent of the nerve connections in the hippocampus. While not all older adults exhibit this neuron loss, those who do show decreased performance on memory tests.

Here are three "factoids" quoted from the article:

  • While it may seem like studying and rehearsing information is the best way to ensure that you will remember it, researchers have found that being tested on information is actually one of the best ways to improve recall.
  • Do you ever feel like you are constantly forgetting things or misplacing objects that you use every day? Have you ever found yourself walking into a room only to realize that you can't remember why you went in there in the first place? While it might seem like you are doomed to simply tolerate these daily annoyances, researchers have found that you can learn how to improve your memory.
  • Lead researcher Wen-Biao Gan explained in an interview with the science website, "Our idea was that you actually don't need to make many new synapses and get rid of old ones when you learn, memorize. You just need to modify the strength of the preexisting synapses for short-term learning and memory. However, it's likely that few synapses are made or eliminated to achieve long-term memory."

Recent research in math education has examined how the brain changes as young students do one-digit arithmetic by counting on their fingers and then later memorize these number facts. Here is an article about math learning:

Shen, H. (8/17/2014). Developing brains switch maths strategies. Nature. Retrieved 8/18/2014 from Quoting from the article:
Vinod Menon, a developmental cognitive neuroscientist at Stanford University in California, and his colleagues presented single-digit addition problems to 28 children aged 7–9, as well as to 20 adolescents aged 14–17 and 20 young adults. Consistent with previous psychology studies, the children relied heavily on counting out the sums, whereas adolescents and adults tended to draw on memorized information to calculate the answers.

The children were tested twice, with a year between tests. Continuing to quote from the article:

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan the children's brains, the team observed increased activation of the hippocampus between the first and second time point. Neural activation decreased in parts of the prefrontal and parietal cortices known to be involved in counting, suggesting that the same calculations had begun to engage different neural circuits.
Children with stronger connections between the hippocampus and neocortex were more likely than others to answer problems with memorized maths facts.

Finally, here is information about research on electrical stimulation of the hippocampus that improved learning.

Schmidt, E. (2/8/2012). UCLA scientists boost memory by stimulating key site in brain. UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved 8/18/2014 from Quoting from the article:
UCLA neuroscientists have demonstrated that they can strengthen memory in human patients by stimulating a critical junction in the brain. Published in the Feb. 9 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine, the finding could lead to a new method for boosting memory in patients with early Alzheimer's disease.
The UCLA team focused on a brain site called the entorhinal cortex. Considered the doorway to the hippocampus, which helps form and store memories, the entorhinal cortex plays a crucial role in transforming daily experience into lasting memories.
"When we stimulated the nerve fibers in the patients' entorhinal cortex during learning, they later recognized landmarks and navigated the routes more quickly," Fried said. "They even learned to take shortcuts, reflecting improved spatial memory.
"Critically, it was the stimulation at the gateway into the hippocampus — and not the hippocampus itself — that proved effective," he added.

The following website provides links to a number of different websites about possible ways to improve memory.

Douglas (2014). The Science Behind Memory Improvement. Retrieved 8/18/2014 from

Here is a quote from the referenced site:

(1) Exercise increases hippocampus size and improves memory. One year of brisk walking by older adults caused their hippocampus to grow by 2 percent. They walked 40 minutes, three days a week. The control group that did not walk saw their hippocampus shrink by over 1 percent, due to normal aging.
Reference: Kirk I. Erickson, Michelle W. Voss, et al. "Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), Jan. 31, 2011. DOI:
(2) Physically fit children perform better on memory tests. Children age 9 and 10 who were more physically fit had a 12 percent bigger hippocampus and scored higher on a test of relational memory (the memory-associated ability to relate and integrate information). Fitness was measured by how efficiently the student's body used oxygen while running on a treadmill ("the gold standard measure of fitness"). The size of their hippocampus was measured by MRI scan.
Reference: Laura Chaddock, Kirk I. Erickson, et al. "A neuroimaging investigation of the association between aerobic fitness, hippocampal volume and memory performance in preadolescent children." Brain Research, 1358: 172-183. October 28, 2010. DOI:
(3) Aerobic fitness is correlated with hippocampal size. Physical fitness is directly associated with a larger hippocampus and better spatial memory in older adults. Participants in this study who were more fit were shown to have a significantly larger hippocampus. According to the study authors, "If you stay fit, you retain key regions of your brain involved in learning and memory."
Reference: Kirk I. Erickson, Ruchika S. Prakash, et al. "Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans." Hippocampus, 19: 1030-1039. October 2009. DOI:
Final Remarks

In athletic competitions we are greatly concerned by the possibility of some athletes gaining an unfair advantage through use of drugs. As we learn more about the human brain, will we be concerned about some students gaining an unfair learning advantage through use of electric stimulation of their brains or by use of cognitive-enhancing drugs?

We know that the hippocampus plans an importatn role in learning. We are making progress in understanding how short term memory is converted into long term memory. We understand that an undamaged, healthy hippocampus is important to learning.

We are beginning to see articles that provide evident that improving the health and possibly the size of the hippocampus is possible through appropriate diet and exercise.

History of Brain Science

The history of brain science extends back to well before it was a "science." For example, phrenology was once considered by many to be an important approach to studying the brain. Quoting from the phrenology website:

Phrenology was a faculty psychology, theory of brain and science of character reading, what the 19th-century phrenologists called "the only true science of mind." Phrenology was derived from the theories of the idiosyncratic Viennese physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828).
…so it was believed that by examining the shape and unevenness of a head or skull, one could discover the development of the particular cerebral "organs" responsible for different intellectual aptitudes and character traits. For example, a prominent protuberance in the forehead at the position attributed to the organ of Benevolence was meant to indicate that the individual had a "well developed" organ of Benevolence and would therefore be expected to exhibit benevolent behaviour.

Brain science took a major leap forward through the work of Alfred Binet and others in the early 1900s. Quoting from this website:

Intelligence testing began in earnest in France, when in 1904 psychologist Alfred Binet was commissioned by the French government to find a method to differentiate between children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior. The purpose was to put the latter into special schools. There they would receive more individual attention and the disruption they caused in the education of intellectually normal children could be avoided.
This led to the development of the Binet Scale, also known as the Simon-Binet Scale in recognition of Theophile Simon's assistance in its development. The test had children do tasks such as follow commands, copy patterns, name objects, and put things in order or arrange them properly. Binet gave the test to Paris schoolchildren and created a standard based on his data. For example, if 70 percent of 8-year-olds could pass a particular test, then success on the test represented the 8-year-old level of intelligence. Following Binet’s work, the phrase “intelligence quotient,” or “IQ,” entered the vocabulary. The IQ is the ratio of “mental age” to chronological age, with 100 being average. So, an 8 year old who passes the 10-year-old’s test would have an IQ of 10/8 x 100, or 125.

Now, more than a century later, various theories of IQ and measures of IQ are still active areas of study and research. However, non-invasive brain scanning neuroimaging equipment has come onto the scene and has added very important new dimensions to the field of brain science. Quoting again from this website:

Neuroimaging falls into two broad categories:
  • Structural imaging, which deals with the structure of the brain and the diagnosis of gross (large scale) intracranial disease (such as tumor), and injury, and
  • Functional imaging, which is used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale (such as Alzheimer's disease) and also for neurological and cognitive psychology research and building brain-computer interfaces.
Functional imaging enables, for example, the processing of information by centers in the brain to be visualized directly. Such processing causes the involved area of the brain to increase metabolism and "light up" on the scan.

Innate Math Skills

Within any specific area of human endeavor, it may well be that some people are born with considerably more innate potential than others. Math provides a good area to study this situation. Are there significant brain differences between people who become good at math and those who struggle with math and perhaps make little progress in learning this discipline?

One way that researchers attack such questions is to look at animals. What are math capabilities and limitations of some non-human brains? Here is an example of such a study:

Cantlon, J.F., & Brannon, E.M. (2007). Basic Math in Monkeys and College Students. PLoS Biol 5(12): e328 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050328. Retrieved 12/19/07 from Quoting from the article:
Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common evolutionary history. Current evidence indicates that humans and nonhuman animals share a core set of abilities for representing and comparing approximate numerosities nonverbally; however, it remains unclear whether nonhuman animals can perform approximate mental arithmetic. Here we show that monkeys can mentally add the numerical values of two sets of objects and choose a visual array that roughly corresponds to the arithmetic sum of these two sets. Furthermore, monkeys' performance during these calculations adheres to the same pattern as humans tested on the same nonverbal addition task. Our data demonstrate that nonverbal arithmetic is not unique to humans but is instead part of an evolutionarily primitive system for mathematical thinking shared by monkeys.
The fact that humans and nonhuman animals represent numerical values nonverbally using a common cognitive process is well established [1–7]. Both human and nonhuman animals can nonverbally estimate the numerical values of arrays of dots or sequences of tones [8–12] and determine which of two sets is numerically larger or smaller [13–19]. When adult humans and nonhuman animals make approximate numerical comparisons, their performance is similarly constrained by the ratio between numerical values (i.e., Weber's law; [7]). Thus, discrete symbols such as number words and Arabic numerals are not the only route to numerical concepts; both human and nonhuman animals can represent number approximately, in a nonverbal code.

Another approach is to study humans. Howard Gardner is noted for his work in studying multiple types of human intelligences. Logical-mathematical is one of the nine types of intelligence he has identified. This approach posits a bell-shaped curve for IQ in general and for IQ in various specific areas such as logical-mathematical or music.

We have a great deal of research on students with low math-learning capabilities. Roughly, students in the bottom five percent of math-learning capabilities "peak out" at about the fourth to fifth grade in our current math education curriculum. That is, their rate of forgetting what they have learned and their rate of learning or relearning balance each other out at about this grade level, and they remain at that level year after year as they continue in school and continue to try to learn math. See

Research in the human brain has identified an Approximate Number Sense (ANS). See Here is a down-to-earth article on the topic:

Angier, Natalie (0/15/2008). Gut Instinct's Surprising Role in Math. The New York Times. Retrieved 10/6/2013 from Quoting from the article:
One research team has found that how readily people rally their approximate number sense is linked over time to success in even the most advanced and abstruse mathematics courses. Other scientists have shown that preschool children are remarkably good at approximating the impact of adding to or subtracting from large groups of items but are poor at translating the approximate into the specific. Taken together, the new research suggests that math teachers might do well to emphasize the power of the ballpark figure, to focus less on arithmetic precision and more on general reckoning.

Test your ANS at

Intelligence (Human Intelligence Quotient)

“Did you mean to say that one man may acquire a thing easily, another with difficulty; a little learning will lead the one to discover a great deal; whereas the other, after much study and application, no sooner learns than he forgets?” (Plato; Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the western world; 428/427 BC-348/347 BC.)

There are many definitions of intelligence. Based on considerable reading in this field, I formulated the following definition for my personal use. You may find it useful as you read various papers about intelligence.

Intelligence is a combination of the ability to:
1. Learn. This includes all kinds of informal and formal learning via any combination of experience, education, and training.
2. Pose problems. This includes recognizing problem situations and transforming them into more clearly defined problems.
3. Solve problems. This includes solving problems, accomplishing tasks, fashioning products, and doing complex projects.

This definition of intelligence is a very optimistic one. It says that each of us can become more intelligent. We can become more intelligent through study and practice, through access to appropriate tools, and through learning to make effective use of these tools.

The quote from Plato at the beginning of this section provides evidence that people have been interested in the topic of intelligence for well over 2,000 years. In more modern times, Charles Spearman argued in a 1904 research paper that there is a general intelligence factor (named "g"), and his theory still is strongly supported. Note that a capital "G" is sometimes used instead of a lower case "g." Quoting Spearman:

When asked what G is, one has to distinguish between the meanings of terms and the facts about things. G means a particular quantity derived from statistical operations. Under certain conditions the score of a person at a mental test can be divided into two factors, one of which is always the same in all tests, whereas the other varies from one test to another; the former is called the general factor or G, while the other is called the specific factor. This then is what the G term means, a score-factor and nothing more.
G is in the normal course of events determined innately; a person can no more be trained to have it in higher degree than he can be trained to be taller.

At approximately the same time as Spearman, Alfred Benet, a French psychologist, began working on the development of an IQ test. Quoting from the referenced article:

In 1904 a French professional group for child psychology, La Société Libre pour l'Etude Psychologique de l'Enfant, was called upon by the French government to appoint a commission on the education of retarded children. The commission was asked to create a mechanism for identifying students in need of alternative education. Binet, being an active member of this group, found the impetus for the development of his mental scale.
Binet and Simon, in creating what historically is known as the Binet-Simon Scale, comprised a variety of tasks they thought were representative of typical children's abilities at various ages. This task-selection process was based on their many years of observing children in natural settings. They then tested their measurement on a sample of fifty children, ten children per five age groups. The children selected for their study were identified by their school teachers as being average for their age. The purpose of this scale of normal functioning, which would later be revised twice using more stringent standards, was to compare children's mental abilities relative to those of their normal peers.

Howard Gardner, David Perkins, and Robert Sternberg are current researchers who have written widely read books about intelligence. Of these three, Howard Gardner is probably best known by K-12 educators. His theory of Multiple Intelligences has proven quite popular with such educators.

In a 1991 article, Mindware and Metacurriculum, David Perkins discusses a three-component theory of intelligence. Quoting from the article:

I suggest a framework that recognizes three basic dimensions to intelligence: the neural dimension, the experiential dimension, and the reflective dimension. Rather than rivals, these three should be considered contrasting causal factors that all contribute substantially to intelligent behavior. Such a formulation dissolves a fruitless debate and sets the stage for asking what education can do to cultivate these three dimensions of intelligence.

Sternberg divides intelligence into analytical, creative, and practical components. The link provides access to a number of video presentations by Sternberg.

There are many other researchers who have contributed to the extensive and continually growing collection of research papers on intelligence. See, for example, "Current issues in research on intelligence."

There is a near universal agreement among researchers that some aspects of our intellectual abilities depend heavily on our experiential histories, and some aspects depend on our genetic makeup. Thus, a person’s cognitive abilities are a combination of nature and nurture. People who study this area talk about fluid intelligence—"gF," which is biologically based—and "gC," crystallized intelligence (based on acquired knowledge).

From a teacher’s point of view, it is important to understand that a person’s life experiences—which include formal and informal education—contribute to the person’s crystallized intelligence. Education is very important!

Here is a nice summary article directed at college educators:

Paul, Annie Murphy (6/28/2013). Eight Ways of Looking at Intelligence. The Brilliant Report. Retrieved 3/31/2014 from Quoting from the article:
Before I jump into my eight ways, a few words about that term I just used, 'the science of learning.' The science of learning is a relatively new discipline born of an agglomeration of fields: cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience. Its project is to apply the methods of science to human endeavors—teaching and learning—that have for centuries been mostly treated as an art.
Although I am, very much, an advocate of the science of learning, I want to emphasize that—as with anything to do with our idiosyncratic and unpredictable species—there is still a lot of art involved in teaching and learning, and for that matter, in what you do as college admissions counselors. But I do think that the science of learning can offer some surprising and useful perspectives on how we guide and educate young people.

IQ Has Been Increasing Over the Past Century: The Flynn Effect

Gladwell, Malcolm (12/17/07). None of the Above: What I.Q. Doesn't Tell You About Race. The New Yorker. Retrieved 12/19/07 from:

This article provides an extensive review of What Is Intelligence?, a new book by James Flynn that discusses the increase in IQ that has been occurring in recent decades and throughout the world. The book and the review also discuss assertions about differences of IQ of various races. Quoting from the review:

Flynn has been writing about the implications of his findings—now known as the Flynn effect—for almost twenty-five years. His books consist of a series of plainly stated statistical observations, in support of deceptively modest conclusions, and the evidence in support of his original observation is now so overwhelming that the Flynn effect has moved from theory to fact. What remains uncertain is how to make sense of the Flynn effect. If an American born in the nineteen-thirties has an I.Q. of 100, the Flynn effect says that his children will have I.Q.s of 108, and his grandchildren I.Q.s of close to 120—more than a standard deviation higher. If we work in the opposite direction, the typical teen-ager of today, with an I.Q. of 100, would have had grandparents with average I.Q.s of 82—seemingly below the threshold necessary to graduate from high school. And, if we go back even farther, the Flynn effect puts the average I.Q.s of the schoolchildren of 1900 at around 70, which is to suggest, bizarrely, that a century ago the United States was populated largely by people who today would be considered mentally retarded.

In brief summary, Flynn argues that:

  1. The increase in IQ is due to better informal and formal education in areas of abstract ideas, abstract reasoning, and use of metaphors.
  2. The so called "findings" about racial differences in IQ are not supported by the data on which these findings have been based.

Flynn updates and summarizes his arguments in a 19-minute TED Talks video:

Flynn, James (September 2013). James Flynn: Why Our IQ Levels Are Higher than Our Grandparents. Retrieved 9/29/2013 from

The video begins with an interesting analogy of how tools have increased our physical performance over time, and similarly how education-training-thinking tools have increased our levels of cognitive performance. He argues that our brains perform much better than in the past because we are providing them with mental tools—tools we store in our brains and that our brains use in addressing problems and tasks. That is, in the nature versus nurture debate, it isn't that nature has provided us with much better brains in the past century or so. Instead, nurture has made our brains much more capable in the types of performance areas measured by IQ tests.

Research by Greg Toppo takes a quite different approach that might help to explain the Flynn Effect:

Toppo, Greg (2/3/09). Study Links Children's Lead Levels, SAT Scores. USA Today. Retrieved 2/3/09: Quoting from the article:
Could a decades-long drop in the concentration of lead in children's blood help explain rising SAT scores?
A Virginia economist who pored over years of national data says there's an "incredibly strong" correlation, which adds to a growing body of research on lead's harmful effects.
The findings, to be published this winter in the journal Environmental Research, suggest that from 1953 to 2003, the fall and rise of the average SAT math and verbal score has tracked the rise and fall of blood lead levels so closely that half of the change in scores over 50 years, and possibly more, probably is the result of lead, says economist Rick Nevin.
He controlled for rising numbers of students taking SAT prep courses and for rising numbers of students who speak a foreign language at home — that would depress verbal scores.

Nevin estimates that lead explains 45% of the historic variation in verbal scores and 65% in math scores.

The following article suggests that the Flynn effect has run its course:

Shayer, M., Ginsburg, D., & Coe, R. (2007). Thirty years on – a large anti-Flynn effect? The Piagetian test Volume & Heaviness norms 1975–2003. The British Psychological Society. Retrieved 01/5/2014 from

Quoting from the document:

Results. The mean drops in scores from 1976 to 2003 were boys . 1.13 and

girls . 0.6 levels. A differential of 0.50 standard deviations in favour of boys in 1976 had completely disappeared by the year 2002. Between 1976 and 2003 the effect-size of the drop in the boys’ performance was 1.04 standard deviations, and for girls was 0.55 standard deviations.

Conclusion. The idea that children leaving primary school are getting more and more intelligent and competent – whether it is viewed in terms of the Flynn effect, or in terms of government statistics on performance in Key Stage 2 SATS in mathematics and science – is put into question by these findings.

Also see:

Griffiths, S. (8/21/2014). Are we becoming more STUPID? IQ scores are decreasing - and some experts argue it's because humans have reached their intellectual peak. Mail Online. Retrieved 10/5/2014 from Quoting from this article:
Now some experts believe we are starting to see the end of the Flynn effect in developed countries – and that IQ scores are not just levelling out, but declining.
Scientists including Dr Flynn think better education can reverse the trend and point out the perceived decline could just be a blip. However, other scientists are not so optimistic.
Some believe the Flynn effect has masked a decline in the genetic basis for intelligence, so that while more people have been reaching their full potential, that potential itself has been declining.

Learning, Forgetting, and Relearning

In brief summary, we know that students forget much of what they "learn" in a course. This occurs through disuse of the materials, the "rote memory, regurgitate for the test, and forget" approach, teaching methods that are not as good as they can be in facilitating "deep learning with understanding," and so on.

A 7/15/2014 Google search of the expression learning and forgetting produced over 10 million hits. The UCLA Bjork Learning & Forgetting Lab was at the top of the list. The Research section of the site contains an extensive introduction to and overview of learning and forgetting. It also contains a number of short video presentations by Bjork. The first of these provides research-based recommendations to teachers and students. Quoting from the Lab's website:

The primary goal of this research, which is funded by the James S. McDonnell foundation, is to promote learning and memory performance within educational contexts through the investigation of principles in cognitive psychology. Studies address issues of transfer-appropriate and material-appropriate processing between encoding and retrieval. Applying tests in order to enhance learning and determining the desirable amount and timing of feedback regarding an individual's memory performance are methods that are currently under investigation.
This line of work is also directed toward understanding the mechanisms behind metacognitive awareness of learning. Most people are inaccurate in measuring their own knowledge, through judgments of learning, because they mistakenly rely on the immediate access to knowledge in order to determine the long-term memory retention and the transfer of such knowledge to different contexts. The goal of these studies is to determine the type of instructions and study conditions that will foster accurate judgments of learning, which can lead to better predictions of future performance and optimal self-initiated study practices.

The Study Skills Program at the University of Waterloo, Canada, presents an overview of the "learning/forgetting curve." Quoting from this site:

On Day 1, at the beginning of the lecture, you go in knowing nothing, or 0%, (where the curve starts at the baseline). At the end of the lecture you know 100% of what you know, however well you know it (where the curve rises to its highest point).
By Day 2, if you have done nothing with the information you learned in that lecture, didn't think about it again, read it again, etc. you will have lost 50%-80% of what you learned. Our brains are constantly recording information on a temporary basis: scraps of conversation heard on the sidewalk, what the person in front of you is wearing. Because the information isn't necessary, and it doesn't come up again, our brains dump it all off, along with what was learned in the lecture that you actually do want to hold on to!
By Day 7, we remember even less, and by Day 30, we retain about 2%-3% of the original hour! This nicely coincides with midterm exams, and may account for feeling as if you've never seen this before in your life when you're studying for exams - you may need to actually re-learn it from scratch.
Here's the formula, and the case for making time to review material: Within 24 hours of getting the information - spend 10 minutes reviewing and you will raise the curve almost to 100% again. A week later (Day 7), it only takes 5 minutes to "reactivate" the same material, and again raise the curve. By Day 30, your brain will only need 2-4 minutes to give you the feedback, "Yup, I know that. Got it."

The following article provides some recommendations to teachers:

Griffin, T.J. (7/14/2014). Learning that Lasts: Helping Students Remember and Use What You Teach. Faculty Focus. Retrieved 7/15/2014 from

Quoting from Griffin:

Consider the many and varied responsibilities of a student's brain. In addition to regulating the physical operations of the body, it has to process large amounts of sensory input and determine what to forget and what to remember. It is therefore understandable that most of what they see and hear gets quickly forgotten. There are three factors that determine the strength of an item in memory:
• Recency—How long has it been since last exposure?
• Frequency—How many times have they experienced it?
• Potency—What kind of impact did it have?
With all the sensory input our students experience, it should not surprise us that they quickly forget most of what is presented in our class. Rather than being frustrated with this process of forgetting, we can leverage it to help them learn and make that learning last.

Mathematician's Mind

Logical/mathematical is one of the nine intelligence areas in Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences. The mathematician Jacque Hadamard is well known both for his research results in mathematics and for a 1945 book, The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field. Quoting from this book:

Concerning the title of this study, two remarks are useful. We speak of invention: it would be more correct to speak of discovery. The distinction between these two words is well known: discovery concerns a phenomenon, a law, a being which already existed, but had not been perceived. Columbus discovered America: it existed before him; on the contrary, Franklin invented the lightning rod: before him there had never been any lightning rod.
Such a distinction has proved less evident than appears at first glance. Toricelli has observed that when one inverts a closed tube on the mercury trough, the mercury ascends to a certain determinate height: this is a discovery; but, in doing this, he has invented the barometer; and there are plenty of examples of scientific results which are just as much discoveries as inventions. Franklin's invention of the lightning rod is hardly different from his discovery of the electric nature of thunder. This is a reason why the aforesaid distinction does not truly concern us; and, as a matter of fact, psychological conditions are quite the same for both cases.
On the other hand, our title is "Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field," and not "Psychology of Mathematical Invention." It may be useful to keep in mind that mathematical invention is but a case of invention in general, a process which can take place in several domains, whether it be in science, literature, in art or also technology.
Modern philosophers even say more. They have perceived that intelligence is perpetual and constant invention, that life is perpetual invention. As Ribot says, "Invention in Fine Arts or Sciences is but a special case. In practical life, in mechanical, military, industrial, commercial inventions, in, religious, social, political institutions, the human mind has spent and used as much imagination as anywhere else…"

Peter Liljedahl's 2004 paper, Mathematical Discovery: Hadamard Resurrected presents a more recent analysis of Hadamard's ideas. Quoting from the article:

Hadamard's treatment of the subject of invention at the crossroads of mathematics and psychology was an entertaining, and sometimes humorous, look at the eccentric nature of mathematicians and their ritualistic practices. His work is an extensive exploration and extended argument for the existence of unconscious mental processes. To summarize, Hadamard took the ideas that Poincaré had posed and, borrowing a conceptual framework for the characterization of the creative process in general, turned them into a stage theory. This theory still stands as the most viable and reasonable description of the process of mathematical invention. In what follows I present this theory, referenced not only to Hadamard and Poincaré, but also to some of the many researchers who's work has informed and verified different aspects of the theory.
The phenomenon of mathematical invention, although marked by sudden illumination, consists of four separate stages stretched out over time, of which illumination is but one part. These stages are initiation, incubation, illumination, and verification (Hadamard, 1945). The first of these stages, the initiation phase, consists of deliberate and conscious work. This would constitute a person's voluntary, and seemingly fruitless, engagement with a problem and be characterized by an attempt PME28 – 2004 3–251 to solve the problem by trolling through a repertoire of past experiences (Bruner, 1964; Schön, 1987). This is an important part of the inventive process because it creates the tension of unresolved effort that sets up the conditions necessary for the ensuing emotional release at the moment of illumination (Barnes, 2000; Davis & Hersh, 1980; Feynman, 1999; Hadamard, 1945; Poincaré, 1952; Rota, 1997).
Following the initiation stage the solver, unable to come to a solution stops working on the problem at a conscious level (Dewey, 1933) and begins to work on it at an unconscious level (Hadamard, 1945; Poincaré, 1952). This is referred to as the incubation stage of the inventive process and it is inextricably linked to the conscious and intentional effort that precedes it.
There is another remark to be made about the conditions of this unconscious work: it is possible, and of a certainty it is only fruitful, if it is on the one hand preceded and on the other hand followed by a period of conscious work. These sudden inspirations never happen except after some days of voluntary effort which has appeared absolutely fruitless and whence nothing good seems to have come (Poincaré, 1952, p. 56).


For a lay person's introduction to memory see:

Mastin, L. (2010). The Human Memory. Retrieved 11/16/2014 from Quoting from this Web page:
The popular image of memory is as a kind of tiny filing cabinet full of individual memory folders in which information is stored away, or perhaps as a neural super-computer of huge capacity and speed. However, in the light of modern biological and psychological knowledge, these metaphors may not be entirely useful and, today, experts believe that memory is in fact far more complex and subtle than that
It seems that our memory is located not in one particular place in the brain, but is instead a brain-wide process in which several different areas of the brain act in conjunction with one another (sometimes referred to as distributed processing). For example, the simple act of riding a bike is actively and seamlessly reconstructed by the brain from many different areas: the memory of how to operate the bike comes from one area, the memory of how to get from here to the end of the block comes from another, the memory of biking safety rules from another, and that nervous feeling when a car veers dangerously close comes from still another. Each element of a memory (sights, sounds, words, emotions) is encoded in the same part of the brain that originally created that fragment (visual cortex, motor cortex, language area, etc), and recall of a memory effectively reactivates the neural patterns generated during the original encoding. Thus, a better image might be that of a complex web, in which the threads symbolize the various elements of a memory, that join at nodes or intersection points to form a whole rounded memory of a person, object or event. This kind of distributed memory ensures that even if part of the brain is damaged, some parts of an experience may still remain. Neurologists are only beginning to understand how the parts are reassembled into a coherent whole.

For an active blog about The Brain from Top to Bottom, see Here are two examples of entries in this blog:

(6/10/2014). Poverty Imposes a Cognitive Burden on the Brain
Neuroscience is providing growing evidence that poverty can have serious consequences not only for the health of people who are “struggling to make both ends meet” (something that has been known for a long time), but also on their cognitive abilities. The most recent of these studies looking specifically at this aspect of poverty was published in the journal Science in August 2013 by economist Anandi Mani and her colleagues.
Using two different approaches, this research team reached the same conclusion: for people at the low end of the socioeconomic spectrum, everyday life requires so much calculation and effort just to meet basic material needs (food, shelter, etc.) that it exhausts their mental capacities. (more…)
(8/18/2014). The Myth of Left-brained and Right-brained Personalities
One often reads that certain functions of the human brain are lateralized—for example, that the left hemisphere is more involved in language and the right in the processing of visuospatial information. One also often hears it said that some people are left-brained (meaning that they are analytical, logical, and focused on details) while others are right-brained (more subjective and creative, with more of a tendency to see things as a whole).
But according to a study published on August 14, 2013 in the online journal PLOS ONE, although there is abundant evidence for the lateralization of certain brain functions, the idea of left-brained and right-brained personalities is simply a myth. (more…)

For some recent research on memory in mice, and possible applications humans, see:

Sharlach, M. (11/13/2014). How a Memory Is Made. The Scientist. Retrieved 11/16/2014 from Quoting from the study:
“There’s a huge amount of work on molecular mechanisms of memory storage, and there’s relatively little known about the processes that are important for memory allocation—which cells really code the memory,” said neuroscientist Dietmar Kuhl of the University of Hamburg in Germany who was not involved in the study.
The study builds on previous work by UCLA’s Alcino Silva and his team, which demonstrated in 2009 that CREB levels regulate the allocation of fear memory in a different brain region, the amygdala. “The amygdala and the [insular cortex] are two dramatically different structures in the brain,” said Silva. “We were hoping that the phenomenon of memory allocation was universal, but we had no way of knowing until this [study].”

Metacognition and Self-regulated Learning

Nilson, L. (6/16/2014, The secretor self-regulated learning. Faculty Focus. retrieved 6/16/2014 from Quoting from the article:
…self-regulated learning is the conscious planning, monitoring, evaluation, and ultimately control of one’s learning in order to maximize it. It’s an ordered process that experts and seasoned learners like us practice automatically. It means being mindful, intentional, reflective, introspective, self-aware, self-controlled, and self-disciplined about learning, and it leads to becoming self-directed.
Another secret about self-regulated learning is its strong positive impact on student achievement. Just the cognitive facet of it, metacognition, has an effect that’s almost as large as teacher clarity, getting feedback, and spaced practice and even larger than mastery learning, cooperative learning, time on task, and computer-assisted instruction (Hattie, 2009).

Metacognition is one aspect of self-regulated learning. Quoting again from the article:

Metacognitive questions include these:
* What is the best way to go about this task?
* How well are my learning strategies working? What changes should I make, if any?
* What am I still having trouble understanding?
* What can I recall and what should I review?
* How does this material relate to other things I’ve learned or experienced?

Mirror Neurons: Monkey See, Monkey Do

Quoting from the Wikipedia:

A mirror neuron is a premotor[1] neuron which fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal. Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of another animal, as though the observer were itself acting. These neurons have been directly observed in primates, and are believed to exist in humans and in some birds. In humans, brain activity consistent with mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. Some scientists consider mirror neurons one of the most important findings of neuroscience in the last decade. Among them is V.S. Ramachandran[2], who believes they might be very important in imitation and language acquisition. However, despite the popularity of this field, to date no plausible neural or computational models have been put forward to describe how mirror neuron activity supports cognitive functions such as imitation.

Mirror neurons have received quite a bit of publicity. A January 2005 NOVA contains an excellent 14-minute video about Mirror Neurons. See also an article in this Wiki written by Robert Sylwester and first published in Brain Connection.

Here is a very brief book recommendation quoted from an email message written by Robert Sylwester. He recommended Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect With Others by Marco Iacobonni (2008, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux). Quoting from Sylwester's comments on the book:

Within the brains of humans, apes, and monkeys is a small set of neurons that simulate the actions of others in real time. When you see Humphrey Bogart lock lips with Ingrid Bergman, the same brain cells fire as when you kiss your honey. When you hear co-workers crack open a soda, in your brain it's as if you'd opened the can yourself.
Since their discovery in monkeys less than two decades ago, mirror neurons have been called into service to explain just about everything that makes us human--from empathy and language to politics and pornography. Are these cells really the be-all and end-all of human nature? In one of the first books on the subject, neuroscientist Marco Iacobonni clearly explains what we do know (and how) and what we don't know (and can't).
Want to learn what mirror neurons have to do with Super Bowl commercials, violent video games, autism, addiction, and even free will? This is your book. Watching someone else read Mirroring People doesn't count.

Here is a book that questions some of the literature in the field of mirror neurons:

Hickok, G. (August, 2014). The Myth of Mirror Neurons: The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition. W.W. Norton.

Quoting from a review of Hickok's book by Bob Grant published August 1, 2014, available at

Serving as a case study in how excitement about a scientific discovery can go astray, The Myth of Mirror Neurons relates the breathless exuberance that attended the identification of a new type of brain cell initially regarded as a revelation in our understanding of human brain function. University of California, Irvine, cognitive scientist Gregory Hickok throws cold water on the idea that mirror neurons, which were first observed in the motor cortex of macaques in the 1990s, are crucial to how the primate brain understands the actions of others.
After their initial discovery, mirror neurons became neuroscience’s cells du jour, with tons of papers throughout the 2000s exploring their role in social cognition, language, autism, and more. But the buzz about mirror neurons outpaced the science, according to Hickok. Journals published shoddy studies, and speculation about the ability of mirror neurons to inform the primate brain’s “action understanding” ran amok. Since then, several neuroscientists, Hickok among them, have reevaluated the roles played by these neurons.
Hickok doesn’t simply destroy the hope surrounding mirror neurons; he points the way to new research directions that could more properly contextualize the function of the still-interesting brain cells.

Motivation and Intrinsic Motivation

People talk about extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The general idea is that a person's brain "drives" the mind/body to carry out various tasks. In education, a student may be intrinsically motivated (driven by self) to learn a topic, perform well in an area, and be a responsible (intrinsically motivated) learner. Another student may respond well to external threats and bribes. "My folks pay me $100 for each A that I get. I work to get an A, because I want the money."

It is noted that many people are intrinsically motivated to play various computer games and to do well in the games. Our educational system is working on developing "serious" games that have a high level of educational value and also are intrinsically motivating.

See the article:

Berdik, Chris (3/4/2015 ). A new approach to designing educational technology. Retrieved 3/6/2015 from Quoting from this reference:
Neuropsychologist David Rose spent years helping kids with learning disabilities participate in school by creating digital textbooks with pop-up graphics, text to speech, flexible fonts, and other customizable features to fit individual needs. The books were so engaging “that traditional books started to look relatively disabled by comparison,” says Rose, co-founder and chief education officer of the Center for Applied Special Technology outside Boston. Not just textbooks. The crew at CAST felt that traditional lesson plans built around print were leaving too many kids out, frustrating some students while boring others.
So they flipped their approach. Rather than help individual students plug back into the classroom, they set out to transform the classroom itself. They built software and digital tools to pack lessons with flexibility, offering every student multiple ways to learn and to express that learning—including print, speech, graphics, music, and interactive games, among others. They called their new mission “universal design for learning,” and a movement was born. Spurred by the rapid advance of computers and broadband Internet in schools, UDL initiatives have sprung up in nearly every state in the last five years.

In brief summary, they are designing curriculum that students will find intrinsically motivating, and they believe they are making good progress in this endeavor. Continuing to quote from the article:

“We’ve seen that technology can do a lot of stuff to support students, but the real driver is: Do they actually want to learn something?” says Rose. “If they do, kids will go through a lot of barriers to learn it. Creating the conditions that turn on that drive has become the major function of our work.” m[Bold added for emphasis.]

Here is another relevant article:

Mozes, A. (4/13/2015). Not interested in school? Maybe they are born that way. HealthDay News. Retrieved 415/2015 from Quoting from the article:
Kids who avoid doing homework and don't care about getting A's may have inherited their indifference toward school from their parents, new research suggests.
As much as half of a child's motivation to learn -- or lack of motivation -- may be driven by a genetic predisposition, according to an analysis involving more than 13,000 identical twins in six countries.
SOURCES: Stephen Petrill, Ph.D., professor, psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Sarah Feuerbacher, Ph.D., clinic director, Southern Methodist University Center for Family Counseling, Plano, Texas; July 2015, Personality and Individual Differences.

Mythologies about the Human Brain

You may well believe that most people only use 10% of the capabilities of their brain. And, of course, you may well know a lot about learning styles and believe they play a really important role in teaching and learning. These are only two of many current mythologies about our brains.

The field of brain science is making amazing progress. Many people read a little bit about this progress and try to translate it into ways to solve problems or accomplish tasks in their own particular areas of interest. In the process they create neuromythologies that others come to believe are true and accept without question.

In education, we now have a great many neuromythologies. You might ask yourself, what does a person gain by believing a myth even when there is substantial research evidence that says the myth is incorrect?

Take the 10% claim. I suppose people like to believe this because it suggests that through training, education, and experience they can bring this unused 90% into use, hugely increasing their brain capability. However, the statement about 10% is just plain incorrect.

And what about learning styles? We all have heard about VAK (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic) learners. It seems obvious that a person might be a lot better in one of these learning modalities than in the other two. From this one might conclude that education can be improved by teaching students almost completely in their best learning modality. Or is this another neuromythology? What's the Story on Learning Styles? by Maryellen Weimer provides a nice summary of this topic. Quoting from this article:

Then several years ago, we started seeing articles that challenged the validity of learning styles (see Pashler, for an example). The Pashler literature review did not find empirically valid evidence connecting learning styles with instructional methods and better learning outcomes for students with that style when compared to students with other styles. And so, challenged empirically and questioned in several widely referenced articles, learning styles are now out.
Any number of us have had our doubts about learning styles. The instruments that detect, name, and classify these various approaches to learning just seemed too straightforward. How can there be only two or even four styles? And how can every learner fit neatly into one of those boxes? We also worried about how students responded to them. "I'm a visual learner," one told me, "I don't do textbooks." A certain learning style then excuses one from other learning modalities?
However, what's left standing is one unarguable fact: People do not all learn in the same way. Some of us always read the instructions first and others of us just start putting it together. Richard Felder, widely known for his work in engineering education and a teaching and learning scholar I hold in the highest esteem, shared "Are Learning Styles Invalid? (Hint: No)," a piece that carves a space between the extreme positions on learning styles.

Here is an excellent research-based article on the fallacy of believing in neuromythologies:

Geake, John (2008). Neuromythologies in Education. Educational Research 50(2): pp. 123-133. Retrieved 10/4/2013 from Quoting from the article:
Neuromythologies are those popular accounts of brain functioning, which often appear within so-called ‘brain-based’ educational applications. They could be categorised into neuromyths where more is better: ‘If we can get more of the brain to ‘‘light up’’, then learning will improve ...’, and neuromyths where specificity is better: ‘If we concentrate teaching on the ‘‘lit-up’’ brain areas then learning will improve...’. Prominent examples of neuromythologies of the former include: the 10% myth, that we only use 10% of our brain; multiple intelligences; and Brain Gym. Prominent examples of neuromytholgies of the latter include: left- and right-brained thinking; VAK (visual, auditory and kinaesthetic) learning styles; and water as brain food. Characteristically, the evidential basis of these schemes does not lie in cognitive neuroscience, but rather with the various enthusiastic promoters; in fact, sometimes the scientific evidence flatly contradicts the brain-based claims.

The following book is another excellent resource:

Sousa, David, ed. (2010). Mind, Brain, and Education: Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

A number of the authors in Sousa's book give examples of neuromythologies in education. My suggestion is that you personally and critically survey the current research literature before adopting any new brain science in education fad as an actual fact. We are finally getting some solid research that supports some very useful practices. Unfortunately, we continue to implement practices that are poor or just plain wrong, often based on just this type of neuromythology.

Personally, I am surprised that Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences is listed as neuromythology. I have read a number of Howard Gardner's papers and book, and I find the evidence in them quite convincing. However, there is a considerable correlation between general intelligence and measures of the various specific intelligences. For some readers, this argument supports the concept that we have a general intelligence, and that our "intelligence" in specific areas is just part of this general intelligence.


At one time brain researchers believed that adult human brains did not grow any new neurons. In more resent years, this conjecture has been proven to be incorrect. Quoting from

Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Most active during pre-natal development, neurogenesis is responsible for populating the growing brain with neurons. Recently neurogenesis was shown to continue in several small parts of the brain of mammals: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. Studies have indicated that the hormone testosterone in vertebrates, and the prohormone ecdysone in insects, have an influence on the rate of neurogenesis.

The following article provides a good summary of current research in this area and discusses a new discovery.

Yandell, Kate (2/20/2014). Lifelong Neuronal Rebirth. The Scientist. Retrieved 2/22/2014 from Quoting from the article:
Certain neurons in the human striatum—a brain region involved in movement and cognition—are renewed throughout life, according to a study published today (February 20) in Cell. At one time, researchers thought that human neurons regenerated in fewer brain regions than in rodents and nonhuman primates. Now it appears that regenerated neurons simply show up in different brain regions in humans compared with other mammals—a findings that has potential implications for the origins of learning and other higher-order cognitive processes.
“This is the clearest demonstration that [adult neurogenesis in the striatum] is happening in humans,” said Arnold Kriegstein, a developmental neurobiologist at the University of California, San Francisco, who was not involved in the study. “It reenergizes the notion that . . . in the future, it would be possible to harness these cells in some way to repair the injured brain.”
Previously, it had been shown that nonhuman mammals undergo adult neurogenesis in two brain regions: the hippocampus, which is involved in memory, and the olfactory bulb, which processes smells. Neuronal progenitor cells, or neuroblasts, destined for the olfactory bulb are born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain. Humans also produce neuroblasts in the SVZ, but these cells never make it to the olfactory bulb. Frisén and his colleagues hypothesized that, rather than heading to the olfactory bulb, human SVZ neuroblasts integrate in the nearby striatum.

Think about the possibilities if researchers are able to foster/promote/cause the growth of new neurons in the various parts of the brain. The implications for people with brain injuries and brain degenerative diseases are immense. But, what if we reach a time when we can do something akin to "blood doping"—that is, "neuron doping?" Right now we test athletes for use of "illegal" drugs. Hmm. Perhaps we will want to test students for use of procedures that increase their number of neurons?

The following Scientific American Mind article provides a good introduction to neurogenesis:

Skaggs, W. (September, 2014). New Neurons for New Memories. Scientific American Mind. An abstract is available at Quoting from the article:
The discovery of nascent neurons in the adult human hippocampus, first reported in 1998, came as a surprise to many in the field. Although sprouting new brain cells may sound useful, the costs are potentially high. After all, space within the skull is finite, and newcomers could disrupt the delicate neural networks that store knowledge.
Neuroscientists now suspect that neurons born in the hippocampus help the brain create and sift through the millions of memories we form over the course of a lifetime. If this is true, neurogenesis might solve a puzzle that has perplexed memory researchers for more than 60 years: how our brain keeps separate memories of similar events. These discoveries may ultimately reveal not only how we recall the episodes of our lives but also how we can preserve our brain's powerful record-keeping faculties despite the inevitable decline of aging.
We already know of a few ways to boost the growth of new neurons. The techniques are familiar hallmarks of a healthy way of life. Both Gage and Kempermann have found that physical exercise and ongoing learning can increase neurogenesis.
In the opposite direction, severe and continued stress, alcohol and some drugs may hinder neurogenesis. Although the precise mechanisms remain a mystery, these findings hint that making healthful choices could prolong and improve your brain's memory-building abilities.
More invasive techniques could also apply. In 2011 a research group led by neuroscientist Paul W. Frankland of the University of Toronto found that deep-brain stimulation could improve neurogenesis and subsequent performance on a spatial memory task. Other methods might one day mimic the conditions of neurogenesis, such as using stem cells to replace hippocampal neurons lost to aging. [Bold added for emphasis.]


Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity, is an umbrella term that encompasses both synaptic plasticity and non-synaptic plasticity—it refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses which are due to changes in behavior, environment, and neural processes, as well as changes resulting from bodily injury.
Neuroplasticity occurs on a variety of levels, ranging from cellular changes due to learning, to large-scale changes involved in cortical remapping in response to injury. The role of neuroplasticity is widely recognized in healthy development, learning, memory, and recovery from brain damage. During most of the 20th century, the consensus among neuroscientists was that brain structure is relatively immutable after a critical period during early childhood. This belief has been challenged by findings revealing that many aspects of the brain remain plastic even into adulthood.

Michael Merzenich is a world leader in brain science. Much of his work has been directed toward research and applications in education. See his 23-minute TED talk on brain plasticity. Some of his papers and other presentations are available at:

Kendra Cherry] presents a short history of brain plasticity in her article at: Quoting from her article:

Psychologist William James suggested that the brain was perhaps not as unchanging as previously believed way back in 1890. In his [1890] book The Principles of Psychology, he wrote, "Organic matter, especially nervous tissue, seems endowed with a very extraordinary degree of plasticity." However, this idea went largely ignored for many years.
In the 1920s, researcher Karl Lashley provided evidence of changes in the neural pathways of rhesus monkeys. By the 1960s, researchers began to explore cases in which older adults who had suffered massive strokes were able to regain functioning, demonstrating that the brain was much more malleable than previously believed. Modern researchers have also found evidence that the brain is able to rewire itself following damage.


My 11/12/2014 Google search of neuroprosthetics produced about 118,000 hits. Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Neuroprosthetics (also called neural prosthetics) is a discipline related to neuroscience and biomedical engineering concerned with developing neural prostheses. They are sometimes contrasted with a brain-computer interface, which connects the brain to a computer rather than a device meant to replace missing biological functionality.

This field of research and development has a long history and is making rapid progress.

Leuthardt, E., Roland, J. and Ray, W. (11/1/2014). Neuroprosthetics. The Scientist. Retrieved 11/12/2014 from

Quoting from the article:

In its simplest form, a neuroprosthetic is a device that supplants or supplements the input and/or output of the nervous system. For decades, researchers have eyed neuroprosthetics as ways to bypass neural deficits caused by disease, or even to augment existing function for improved performance. Today, several different types of surgical brain implants are being tested for their ability to restore some level of function in patients with severe sensory or motor disabilities. In a very different vein, a company called recently started selling simple, noninvasive brain stimulators to improve normal people’s attention while gaming. And perhaps the most visible recent demonstration of the power of neuroprosthetics was a spinal cord–injured patient using a brain-controlled exoskeleton to kick off the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. In short, tinkering with the brain has begun in earnest.
But information transfer via neuroprostheses is not a one-way street; some systems are able to convert environmental stimuli into perceptions by capturing an external input and translating it into an appropriate stimulus delivered directly to the nervous system. In this light, researchers have developed cochlear implants and functional retinal prostheses. (See [


Quoting from

A phobia (from the Greek: φόβος, Phóbos, meaning "fear" or "morbid fear") is, when used in the context of clinical psychology, a type of anxiety disorder, usually defined as a persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding, typically disproportional to the actual danger posed, often being recognized as irrational. In the event the phobia cannot be avoided entirely, the sufferer will endure the situation or object with marked distress and significant interference in social or occupational activities.

The following article discusses some recent research on treatment of phobias:

Hamzelou, Jessica (3/13/2014). The Therapy Pill: Forget Your Phobia in Fast Forward. NewScientist. Retrieved 3/13/2014 from Quoting from this article:
Drugs that work to boost learning may help someone with a phobia to "detrain their brain", losing the fearful associations that fuel their panic. This approach is also showing promise for a host of other problems – from chemical and gambling addictions to obsessive nail-biting.
So how do we overcome such deep-seated associations? One answer is exposure therapy, a treatment primarily used to deal with anxiety and phobias. In those initial studies, people gradually expose themselves to increasingly anxiety-triggering situations – called a "fear hierarchy" – until they feel at ease with them. In my case, that would involve scaling a series of ever greater heights. As the individual becomes more comfortable with each situation, they create a new memory – one that links the cue with reduced feelings of anxiety, rather than the sensations that mark the onset of a panic attack. This process is called extinction learning.

The article then goes on to discuss recent research on use of a "pill-based" method to help speed up extinction learning:

One such avenue is the use of "cognitive enhancers". One of the most promising contenders is an antibiotic originally used to treat tuberculosis. Apart from its action on germs, D-cycloserine, or DCS, also acts on neurons.
This tuning of a neuron's firing is thought to be one of the key ways the brain stores memories, and at very low doses, DCS appears to boost that process, improving our ability to learn.

Poisons That Damage the Brain

The general public is aware that lead damages the human brain. There are a number of quite prevalent brain-poisoning substances that children and adults are being exposed to.

Hamblin.J. (3/18/2014). The toxins that threaten our brains. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2/26/2015 from Quoting from the article:
Leading scientists recently identified a dozen chemicals as being responsible for widespread behavioral and cognitive problems. But the scope of the chemical dangers in our environment is likely even greater. Why children and the poor are most susceptible to neurotoxic exposure that may be costing the U.S. billions of dollars and immeasurable peace of mind.

The Nenurtoxins listed in the study are: manganese, fluoride, chloypyrifos, DDT/DDE, tetracloro-ethylene, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, arsenic, lead, mercury, toluene, ethanol, and polycholorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

The following sections contain details of three prominent IQ-lowering toxins.

Godwin, H. (2009). Lead exposure and poisoning of children. Southern California Environmental Report Card. Retrieved 2/26/2015 from Quoting from the report:
Lead has been recognized as a poison for thousands of years, but the profound impact that chronic exposure to even low levels of lead can have on developing children only became widely recognized in the United States in the 1970s. At that time, it was not uncommon for pediatricians to see lead poisoning cases in which the children had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 45 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL), at which point children often exhibit both neurological problems and anemia. At higher blood lead levels (70-100 µg/dL), children can suffer from comas and seizures, or even die.
The level the CDC defines as “elevated” has dropped significantly since the 1960’s, in response to clear evidence even very low levels of lead are harmful to children’s health (Figure 1). Currently, the CDC defines an “elevated” blood lead level as one that is greater than or equal to 10 µg/dL (Table 1). In 1976, the average child in the United States had a blood lead level of approximately 16 µg/dL, suggesting a person who grew up in the United States in the 1970’s (including the author) was exposed to lead levels currently considered to be unacceptable. Although many of us have gone on to conduct successful and rewarding lives despite this exposure, it is important to note the most pronounced impacts of this exposure are likely to have been felt by those individuals whose IQ or neurological development was already marginal. Whereas a drop in IQ of 5-10 points does not significantly alter the functioning of individuals at the top end of the IQ distribution, it can have a devastating effect on those individuals who are at the low end of the distribution
Dockterman, E. (6/27/2013). Childhood lead exposure may cost developing countries nearly $1 trillion. Time. Retrieved 2/26/2015 from Quoting from the article:
The greater amount of lead you are exposed to as a child, the dumber you get. Paint, batteries, and leaded gasoline could all be threatening a child’s cognitive potential. Preschool blood lead levels over 40 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood lower average IQ by 15 points. Studies have also demonstrated that the neurotoxin has other adverse consequences, including hyperactivity, behavioral deficits, and learning disabilities.
Yet developing countries still suffer from high levels of lead exposure. A study published June 25 in Environmental Health Perspectives puts a dollar sign on the epidemic in hopes of convincing the global community to make the investment in reducing lead exposure in low- and middle-income countries. According to the head of the study, Dr. Leo Trasande of the NYU School of Public Health, “There’s ample literature that suggests that children that have lower IQs are less well able to contribute to society, and over the past decades researchers have quantified the percentage that on average is lost over a lifetime in economic productivity per IQ point.”
Esterbrook, J. (3/1/2005). Study: IQ loss from mercury costly. Retrieved 2/27/2015 from Quoting from the article:
Lower IQ levels linked to mercury exposure in the womb costs the United States $8.7 billion a year in lost earnings potential, according to a study released Monday by researchers at a New York hospital.
The Mount Sinai Center for Children's Health and the Environment combined a number of previous studies to determine hundreds of thousands of babies are born every year with lower IQ associated with mercury exposure.
As an example, Trasande said about 4 percent of babies, or about 180,000, are born each year with blood mercury levels between 7.13 and 15 micrograms per liter. That level of mercury, the group concluded, causes a loss of 1.6 IQ points.
Mercury levels, Trasande said, are probably lower generally than they were in years before limits were placed on emissions from medical waste and municipal incinerators.
"We've made great progress in reducing mercury emissions over the past decade, and this is likely to have reduced the number of affected children and to have reduced costs by a similar amount," Trasande said.
Paul, T.S. (12/10/2014). Exposure during pregnancy to common household chemicals associated with substantial drop in child IQ. Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Retrieved 2/26/2015 from Quoting from the article:
Children exposed during pregnancy to elevated levels of two common chemicals found in the home—di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP)—had an IQ score, on average, more than six points lower than children exposed at lower levels, according to researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health.
DnBP and DiBP are found in a wide variety of consumer products, from dryer sheets to vinyl fabrics to personal care products like lipstick, hairspray, and nail polish, even some soaps. Since 2009, several phthalates have been banned from children’s toys and other childcare articles in the United States. However, no steps have been taken to protect the developing fetus by alerting pregnant women to potential exposures. In the U.S., phthalates are rarely listed as ingredients on products in which they are used.
Children of mothers exposed during pregnancy to the highest 25 percent of concentrations of DnBP and DiBP had IQs 6.6 and 7.6 points lower, respectively, than children of mothers exposed to the lowest 25 percent of concentrations after controlling for factors like maternal IQ, maternal education, and quality of the home environment that are known to influence child IQ scores. The association was also seen for specific aspects of IQ, such as perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.

Poverty Contributes Substantially to Lower Cognitive Performance

Sanders, Robert (2/12/08). EEGs Show Brain Differences between Poor and Rich Kids. UC Berkley News. Retrieved 12/25/08: Quoting from the article:
In a study recently accepted for publication by the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, scientists at UC Berkeley's Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute and the School of Public Health report that normal 9- and 10-year-olds differing only in socioeconomic status have detectable differences in the response of their prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain that is critical for problem solving and creativity.
"Kids from lower socioeconomic levels show brain physiology patterns similar to someone who actually had damage in the frontal lobe as an adult," said Robert Knight, director of the institute and a UC Berkeley professor of psychology. "We found that kids are more likely to have a low response if they have low socioeconomic status, though not everyone who is poor has low frontal lobe response."
"This is a wake-up call," Knight said. "It's not just that these kids are poor and more likely to have health problems, but they might actually not be getting full brain development from the stressful and relatively impoverished environment associated with low socioeconomic status: fewer books, less reading, fewer games, fewer visits to museums."
Kishiyama, Knight and Boyce suspect that the brain differences can be eliminated by proper training. They are collaborating with UC Berkeley neuroscientists who use games to improve the prefrontal cortex function, and thus the reasoning ability, of school-age children.

The following articles discuss more recent findings.

Velasquez-Manoff, Moises (1/18/23014). What Happens When the Poor Receive a Stipend?. The New York Times. Retrieved 1/232/2014 from

The article summarizes research on the effects of providing the poor with a stipend that continues over a significant period of time and is enough to raise them from poverty. The research suggests that this has a dynamic effect of the children, and that this occurs because the financial stress on the parents is greatly reduced. With less financial stress, they become better at parenting.

James Heckman is a Nobel prize-winning economist. At his website, he argues that providing funds to raise families out of poverty is economically sound. Retrieved 1/26/2014 from Quoting from his website:

The argument is not just an appeal to the poor. We're saving money for everyone, including the taxpaying middle class and upper class. Right now they're supporting prisons, health, special education in schools. The benefit is broadly shared…. It's something that would actually accrue to the whole country.

An important part of the overall approach is to provide free preschool and full-day kindergarten programs. A number of states are moving in that direction, and the Federal Government has recently restored funding cuts it made to the Head Start Program.

Reading and the Brain

As far as researchers are able to determine, humans had a well-developed system of oral communication before they began to draw/paint pictures on cave walls more than 40,000 years ago. Such cave wall images are a precursor to reading and writing. They capture information that can be visually passed on from generation to generation.

The Ishango bones that contain a pattern of notches have been dated to about 20,000 years ago, and can be considered to be a type of written communication.

Clay tokens dating back about 10,000 years are a precursor to writing. A token with the image of a sheep was used to represent a sheep. The idea and use of clay tokens eventually led to the use of sequences of symbols impressed into clay or chiseled into stone. Quoting from the Wikipedia:

It is generally agreed that true writing of language (not only numbers) was invented independently in at least two places: Mesopotamia (specifically, ancient Sumer) around 3200 BCE and Mesoamerica around 600 BCE. Several Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the Olmec or Zapotec of Mexico.
It is debated whether writing systems were developed completely independently in Egypt around 3200 BCE and in China around 1200 BCE, or whether the appearance of writing in either or both places was due to cultural diffusion (i.e. the concept of representing language using writing, if not the specifics of how such a system worked, was brought by traders from an already-literate civilization).

Reading and writing are one of our greatest inventions. The importance of reading and writing has gradually grown over the past 5,000 years, and they are now well-accepted as an indispensable component of a modern education.

The innate human brain and our physical capabilities for speaking and listening laid a foundation for reading and writing. But, reading and writing are not as easily learned as speaking and listening. In addition, research into dyslexia indicates that, in terms of learning to read, some human brains are wired quite differently than others, and this can make it especially difficult for some people to learn to read. See dyslexia and Inside the brain of a struggling reader.

The latter article summarizes recent results from brain imaging of good and struggling readers. Quoting from the article:

In a typical brain, Wernicke’s Area acts as a giant warehouse for speech sounds and their links to meaningful vocabulary. For strug­gling readers, this area shows less activity and may be poorly mapped. That means that for some students, access to word meanings is slow and effortful.

The article offers neurological interventions based on brain plasticity for various brain deficits that have been discovered. Quoting again from the article:

A recent study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to show the potential of such interventions. After an intensive, six-week program, 35 students averaging 7 years of age and all diagnosed with dyslexia showed significant improvements in decoding and reading comprehension, and heightened activity in brain regions that function in typical readers during phonological awareness tasks.
In other words, the right strategies combined with sophisticated technology tools can help struggling readers change their brain physiology and, in the process, become successful, confident readers.

Judy Willis is a classroom teacher turned cognitive neuroscientist. The following article is an excerpt from an interview of Willis that focused on writing and the human brain:

National Writing Project (5/3/2011). Writing and the Brain: Neuroscience Shows the Pathways to Learning. Retrieved 4/4/2014 from Quoting from the article:
NWP: As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects get more emphasis, it seems as if writing and the arts have become secondary. Where do you see writing's place in STEM subjects?
Willis: It's interesting because the increasing buzz about an innovation crisis in the STEM subjects comes at a time when neuroscience and cognitive science research are increasingly providing information that correlates creativity with intelligence; academic, social, and emotional success; and the development of skill sets and higher-process thinking that will become increasingly valuable for students of the 21st century.
Consider all of the important ways that writing supports the development of higher-process thinking: conceptual thinking; transfer of knowledge; judgment; critical analysis; induction; deduction; prior-knowledge evaluation (not just activation) for prediction; delay of immediate gratification for long-term goals; recognition of relationships for symbolic conceptualization; evaluation of emotions, including recognizing and analyzing response choices; and the ability to recognize and activate information stored in memory circuits throughout the brain's cerebral cortex that are relevant to evaluating and responding to new information or for producing new creative insights—whether academic, artistic, physical, emotional, or social.

Sensory Memory

Each of our five senses can receive information and store it in sensory memory. Quoting from the Wikipedia:

The information people received which is stored in sensory memory is just long enough to be transferred to short-term memory. Humans have five main senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch. Sensory memory (SM) allows individuals to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimulus has ceased.

The long-term retention process for sensory information involves transfer from sensory memory to short-term memory, where it can be processed (analyzed) and then transferred to long-term memory. Via this process, some of the sensory information is integrated into (combined with) information already stored in long-term memory and becomes part of our long-term memory. Most of the sensory information that we take in is ignored—that is, does not come to the attention of short-term memory. This observation reinforces our understanding of attention. If we don't pay attention to sensory inputs, we do not learn from them.

Sex Differences

Substantial progress is occurring in identifying differences in human female and male brains. The following article contains a good discussion of some of the latest findings:

Hoagh, Hannah (7/16/08). Brains Apart: The Real Difference Between the Sexes. New Scientist. Quoting from this article:
But it's becoming obvious that the hypothalamus is only the beginning of the story. For a start, the relative sizes of many of the structures inside female brains are different from those of males. In a 2001 study, Jill Goldstein of Harvard Medical School and colleagues measured and compared 45 brain regions in healthy men and women. They found that parts of the frontal lobe, which houses decision-making and problem-solving functions, were proportionally larger in women, as was the limbic cortex, which regulates emotions. Other studies have found that the hippocampus, involved in short-term memory and spatial navigation, is proportionally larger in women than in men, perhaps surprisingly given women's reputation as bad map-readers. In men, proportionally larger areas include the parietal cortex, which processes signals from the sensory organs and is involved in space perception, and the amygdala, which controls emotions and social and sexual behaviour. "The mere fact that a structure is different in size suggests a difference in functional organisation," says neurobiologist Larry Cahill at the University of California, Irvine.

Short-Term Memory (Working Memory)

Short-term memory is also often called working memory. The following article is a "classic" and is still well worth reading:

Miller, George A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. Retrieved 12/7/09 from

Working memory varies significantly with different people, and it also varies under conditions of stress, drugs, and so on. The development of writing and eventually of wide-scale literacy has made a huge contribution to human abilities to deal with complex problems. For example, a written list of chunks of information serves as an augmentation to our quite limited working memory capabilities.

Chunking is one of the key ideas in making better use of one's limited working memory. Quoting from Miller's article:

In order to speak more precisely, therefore, we must recognize the importance of grouping or organizing the input sequence into units or chunks. Since the memory span is a fixed number of chunks, we can increase the number of bits of information that it contains simply by building larger and larger chunks, each chunk containing more information than before.
A man just beginning to learn radio-telegraphic code hears each dit and dah as a separate chunk. Soon he is able to organize these sounds into letters and then he can deal with the letters as chunks. Then the letters organize themselves as words, which are still larger chunks, and he begins to hear whole phrases.

The following article discusses short-term memory in terms of the design of effective Web pages.

Nielsen, Jacob (12/7/09). Short-term Memory and Web Usability. Retrieved 12/7/09 from Quoting from the website:
Summary. The human brain is not optimized for the abstract thinking and data memorization that websites often demand. Many usability guidelines are dictated by cognitive limitations.
People can't keep much information in their short-term memory. This is especially true when they're bombarded with multiple abstract or unusual pieces of data in rapid succession. Lest designers forget how easily users forget, let's review why our brains seem to be so weak.
Human beings are remarkably good at hunting the woolly mammoth. Considering that we humans have neither fangs nor claws, our ancestors did fine work in exterminating most megafauna from Australia to North America armed with nothing better than flint weapons. (In today's more environmentally conscious world, we might deplore their slaughtering ways, but early humans were more interested in catching their dinner.)
Many of the skills needed to use computers aren't highly useful in slaying mammoths. Such skills include remembering obscure codes from one screen to the next and interpreting highly abbreviated form-field labels. It's no surprise that people are no good at these skills, since they weren't important for survival in the ancestral environment.

The educational implications of Nielsen's observations are quite important. The learning instruments/learner interface needs to be designed to effectively cope with limitations of the brain. Again quoting from Nielsen:

Although the average human brain is better equipped for mammoth hunting than using websites, we're not all average. In fact, there are huge individual differences in user performance: the top 25% of users are 2.4 times better than the bottom 25%.
At the extreme, only about 4% of the population has enough brainpower to perform complex cognitive tasks such as making high-level inferences using specialized background knowledge.

Sleep and Sleep Deprivation

Many students come to school somewhat sleep-deprived. And, many adults begin their day with a similar challenge. There has been a lot of research on the effects of not getting enough sleep. For a comprehensive introduction to this topic, see the National Sleep Foundation website at For example, here is a quote from the National Sleep Foundation about adult sleep needs:

As we do not understand the exact function of sleep, and it is possible that sleep serves many purposes, simple benchmarks for defining adequate sleep are difficult to identify. Normal individuals perceive that sleep is restorative. We know that deprivation of sleep makes us sleepy and results in poor performance while sufficient sleep improves our alertness, mood, and performance. Sleep may also provide significant long-term health benefits, but there may be many modifying factors such as the age of the individual, duration of sleep and influence of co-existing health problems and life-style and environmental factors.

The following article from USA Today provides a nice overview.

Heilman, N. (6/22/2014). If you don't snooze, you lose, health experts say. USA Today. Retrieved 6/22/2012 from The site includes a video. Quoting from the text at the website:
Sleep deprivation is associated with an increased risk of many serious health problems, including obesity, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, depression, heart attacks and strokes, as well as premature death and reduced quality of life and productivity, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Add to those an increased risk of automobile crashes, industrial disasters and medical and other occupational errors. A recent mouse study found that chronic sleep loss can lead to the irreversible damage and loss of brain cells.
Sleep is so critical to good health that it should be thought of "as one of the components of a three-legged stool of wellness: nutrition, exercise and sleep," says Safwan Badr, a past president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and a sleep expert with Detroit Medical Center and Wayne State University.
"The three are synergistic," he says. "It's hard to lose weight if you are sleep deprived. It's hard to eat healthy if you are sleep deprived. It is hard to exercise if you're tired."
An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from sleep problems, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, shift-work sleep disorder or narcolepsy, as well as sleep disturbances associated with many diseases, mental illnesses and addictions, according to the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, part of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.

A number of studies report that the sleep patterns of teenagers in the U.S. and other countries are not well aligned with when school starts in the morning. Quoting again from the National Sleep Foundation website:

"Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise," said Ben Franklin. But does this adage apply to teenagers? Research in the 1990s found that later sleep and wake patterns among adolescents are biologically determined; the natural tendency for teenagers is to stay up late at night and wake up later in the morning. This research indicates that school bells that ring as early as 7:00 a.m. in many parts of the country stand in stark contrast with adolescents' sleep patterns and needs.
Evidence suggests that teenagers are indeed seriously sleep deprived. A recent poll conducted by the National Sleep Foundation found that 60% of children under the age of 18 complained of being tired during the day, according to their parents, and 15% said they fell asleep at school during the year.

Here is a quote from the Wikipedia:

Sleep deprivation can adversely affect the brain and cognitive function.[19] A 2000 study, by the UCSD School of Medicine and the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology to monitor activity in the brains of sleep-deprived subjects performing simple verbal learning tasks. The study showed that regions of the brain's prefrontal cortex, an area that supports mental faculties such as working memory and logical and practical ("means-ends") reasoning, displayed more activity in sleepier subjects. Researchers interpreted this result as indicating that the brain of the average sleep-deprived subject had to work harder than that of the average non-sleep-deprived subject to accomplish a given task, and from this indication they inferred the conclusion the brains of sleep-deprived subjects were attempting to compensate for adverse effects caused by sleep deprivation.
A 2001 study at the Chicago Medical Institute suggested that sleep deprivation may be linked to serious diseases, such as heart disease and mental illness including psychosis and bipolar disorder. The link between sleep deprivation and psychosis was further documented in 2007 through a study at Harvard Medical School and the University of California at Berkeley. The study revealed, using MRI scans, that sleep deprivation causes the brain to become incapable of putting an emotional event into the proper perspective and incapable of making a controlled, suitable response to the event.

Finally, here is a summary of some recent research:

Mantel, Barbara (9/17/2013). A Good Night's Sleep Scrubs Your Brain Clean, Researchers Find. NBC News. Retrieved 11/11/2013 from Quoting from this article:
It’s no secret that too little shut-eye can drain your brain, but scientists haven’t fully understood why.
Now, a new study suggests that a good night’s sleep leaves you feeling sharp and refreshed because a newly discovered system that scrubs away neural waste is mostly active when you’re at rest.
It’s a revelation that could not only transform scientists’ fundamental understanding of sleep, but also point to new ways to treat disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, which are linked to the accumulation of toxins in the brain.
“We have a cleaning system that almost stops when we are awake and starts when we sleep. It’s almost like opening and closing a faucet—it’s that dramatic,” says Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, co-director of the Center for Translational Neuromedicine at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

Reference on research added 9/27/2014: See

Social Intelligence

A 3/14/2014 Google search of the expression social intelligence produced more than 33 million hits. Quoting from the Wikipedia:

Social intelligence according to the original definition of Edward Thorndike, is "the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls, to act wisely in human relations." It is equivalent to interpersonal intelligence, one of the types of intelligences identified in Howard Gardner's Theory of [nine intelligence areas Multiple Intelligences, and closely related to Emotional Intelligence. Some authors have restricted the definition to deal only with knowledge of social situations, perhaps more properly called social cognition.

Daniel Goleman says the following about Social Intelligence:

Neuroscience has discovered that our brain’s very design makes it sociable, inexorably drawn into an intimate brain-to-brain linkup whenever we engage with another person. That neural bridge lets us impact the brain—and so the body—of everyone we interact with, just as they do us.
The resulting feelings have far-reaching consequences, in turn rippling throughout our body, sending out cascades of hormones that regulate biological systems from our heart to immune cells. Perhaps most astonishing, science now tracks connections between the most stressful relationships and the very operation of specific genes that regulate the immune system.

Learn about some of Goleman's fundamental ideas from his book, Social Intelligence (2006) and in a short video at


A great deal is known about how stress affects both brain functioning and general health. For example, quoting from!:

According to The Dana Foundation, a new Yale study shows that stress can reduce brain volume and function, even in otherwise healthy individuals. This study was published January 5 [2012] in the journal Biological Psychiatry. The amount of gray matter in the brain is actually decreased with stress and makes it more difficult for people to manage stressful situations in the future. This is the first study to show the impact of cumulative stress on the brain in otherwise healthy individuals.
Toxic stress impacts infant development in utero. It is becoming increasingly clear that the stress of the mother impacts the child. The stress of single parenting, poverty, illness and emotional distress all contribute to toxic stress in both parent and child. Unfunded mandates, excess testing, unfair teacher evaluation, lack of funding and stressed children are creating hostile environments in our schools.

Information Age Education published a sequence of four IAE newsletters on the topic of Stress and Education. See Stress and Education, Part 1, the first of these newsletters, at Quoting from the newsletter:

When we confront a challenge that portends danger or promises opportunity, our brain can normally draw on its considerable problem solving capabilities to develop a carefully considered effective response. Some challenges require a rapid response that uses a lot of energy however, and this article will focus principally on how we respond to them.
We have an innate rapid response system for such imminent dangers and opportunities. You are probably familiar with the terms “fight, freeze, or flight” as response possibilities when your brain senses a possible life-threatening problem situation. In 1975 pioneer researcher Hans Selye called this the stress response. (See The stress response evolved to set priorities on the expenditure of body/brain energy when confronting an extraordinary imminent challenge. The stress response:
Temporarily increases energy flow to the body/brain systems that enhance an assertive response to the current challenge, such as our circulation, respiration, attention, and motor systems, and
Temporarily decreases energy flow to the systems that aren't necessary for a rapid assertive response to the current challenge, such as our digestion, immune, and sexual arousal systems.
A good example of what occurs biologically in a stress response is the rush of adrenaline that prepares our body for physical response to the actual or potential attack. A somewhat slower release of cortisol increases glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream, enhances our brain's use of glucose, and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues. We’ll expand on this later.
We tend to think of stress in negative terms, but the response can certainly be positive. For example, an appropriate level of stress can help a person do better on a test or in an athletic performance. This type of stress response is of limited duration—it is not chronic.
Chronic stress is physically and mentally debilitating because it uses a short-term high-energy response system geared to physical danger and opportunity to deal with a problem that’s typically doesn’t portend physical injury. For example, a teacher getting stressed out for days on end because of classroom misbehavior is counterproductive. Better to engage your problem solving capabilities in creating a classroom environment that reduces misbehavior.

Teenage Brains

The young are heated by Nature as drunken men by wine. (Artistotle; Greek philosopher and scientist; 384-322 BCE.)

My 8/7/2014 Google search of teenage brains produced over 4.8 million hits. Brain development starts before birth and continues until full brain maturity is reached at about age 25. Parents who have raised children to adulthood recognize that, during their teens, many children became "sort of weird." The article by Dobbs can help to explain this.

Dobbs, D. (October, 2011). Beautiful Brains. National Geographic. Retrieved 8/6/2014 from Quoting from the Dobbs article:
The first full series of scans of the developing adolescent brain—a National Institutes of Health (NIH) project that studied over a hundred young people as they grew up during the 1990s—showed that our brains undergo a massive reorganization between our 12th and 25th years. The brain doesn't actually grow very much during this period. It has already reached 90 percent of its full size by the time a person is six, and a thickening skull accounts for most head growth afterward. But as we move through adolescence, the brain undergoes extensive remodeling, resembling a network and wiring upgrade.
These studies help explain why teens behave with such vexing inconsistency: beguiling at breakfast, disgusting at dinner; masterful on Monday, sleepwalking on Saturday. Along with lacking experience generally, they're still learning to use their brain's new networks. Stress, fatigue, or challenges can cause a misfire. Abigail Baird, a Vassar psychologist who studies teens, calls this neural gawkiness—an equivalent to the physical awkwardness teens sometimes display while mastering their growing bodies.

Additional Information Sources:

Inside the Teenage Brain. PBS video. (Click on View the Full Program Online near the top of the image.)

[ The Mysterious Workings of the Adolescent Brain. Video: 2012 TED Talk .

[ The Teen Brain: Still Under Construction. National Institute of Mental Health. Quoting from the document:

An understanding of how the brain of an adolescent is changing may help explain a puzzling contradiction of adolescence: young people at this age are close to a lifelong peak of physical health, strength, and mental capacity, and yet, for some, this can be a hazardous age. Mortality rates jump between early and late adolescence. Rates of death by injury between ages 15 to 19 are about six times that of the rate between ages 10 and 14. Crime rates are highest among young males and rates of alcohol abuse are high relative to other ages. Even though most adolescents come through this transitional age well, it’s important to understand the risk factors for behavior that can have serious consequences. Genes, childhood experience, and the environment in which a young person reaches adolescence all shape behavior. Adding to this complex picture, research is revealing how all these factors act in the context of a brain that is changing, with its own impact on behavior.

Research on the effect of video games on teens is discussed in Risk-Glorifying Video Games Increase Deviant Behaviors in Some Teens. Quoting from this August 4, 2014 document:

Previous studies have examined the dangers of violent video games. Findings have shown that playing too much can increase the risk of certain aggressive behaviors.
Now, a recent study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found that teenagers who play mature-rated, risk-glorifying video games are more likely to engage in a wide range of deviant behaviors, ranging from alcohol use, delinquency, smoking and risky sexual activity.
Dartmouth researchers found that this was especially true for teens who played games with anti-social, protagonistic characters. This made many of the adolescents relate to the characters more, according to researchers.
"Up to now, studies of video games have focused primarily on their effects on aggression and violent behaviors," said Professor James Sargent , a pediatrician and co-author, in a news release. "This study is important because it is the first to suggest that possible effects of violent video games go well beyond violence to apply to substance use, risky driving and risk-taking sexual behavior."

Two Hemispheres

MacNeilage, P.F., Rogers, J., & Vallortigara, G. (July, 2009). Evolutionary Origins of Your Right and Left Brain. Scientific American. Retrieved 6/20/09: Quoting from the article:
The division of labor by the two cerebral hemispheres—once thought to be uniquely human—predates us by half a billion years. Speech, right-handedness, facial recognition and the processing of spatial relations can be traced to brain asymmetries in early vertebrates.
The left hemisphere of the human brain controls language, arguably our greatest mental attribute. It also controls the remarkable dexterity of the human right hand. The right hemisphere is dominant in the control of, among other things, our sense of how objects interrelate in space. Forty years ago the broad scientific consensus held that, in addition to language, right-handedness and the specialization of just one side of the brain for processing spatial relations occur in humans alone. Other animals, it was thought, have no hemispheric specializations of any kind.
Here we present evidence for a radically different hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among biologists. The specialization of each hemisphere in the human brain, we argue, was already present in its basic form when vertebrates emerged about 500 million years ago. We suggest that the more recent specializations of the brain hemispheres, including those of humans, evolved from the original ones by the Darwinian process of descent with modification. (In that process, capabilities relevant to ancient traits are changed or co-opted in the service of other developing traits.) Our hypothesis holds that the left hemisphere of the vertebrate brain was originally specialized for the control of well-established patterns of behavior under ordinary and familiar circumstances. In contrast, the right hemisphere, the primary seat of emotional arousal, was at first specialized for detecting and responding to unexpected stimuli in the environment.

Work in Progress

This IAE-pedia page is a Work in Progress. Here are some topics that remain to be added to the list.

  • Study skills. Learning to learn. A recent Google search of study skills produced over 50 million hits. See This article presents a little research on the value of "mixed problems" in math homework, versus homework being on just one type of problem. It also looks at the idea of tests as teaching tools. For example, short quizzes each class meeting are a type of teaching tool that is effective in increasing end of term test scores. [Comment from Moursund: This is certainly to be expected. It causes many students to study before coming to class. I began using this technique when I found that my students were not doing the required reading before coming to class. Sometimes my quiz consisted of. "Tell me something that was covered in the assigned readings for today and how it relates to what we have covered so far in the course." ]
  • Increasing long-term retention. Learning for understanding versus rote memory.
  • Mnemonics.


Bennett, Barrie (n.d.). Instructional Intelligence website. Retrieved 6/22/08: There is a very important paper titled Instructional Intelligence-Meeting Diverse Students, Diverse Needs available as a PDF file at that location.

Brown University (6/10/09). Brain-Computer Interface, Developed at Brown, Begins New Clinical Trial: Hope for People with Paralysis. Retrieved 6/19/09 from: Quoting from the article:

BrainGate, an investigational technology being developed to detect brain signals and to allow people with paralysis to use those signals to control assistive devices, is about to begin a second, larger clinical trial. The system is based on neuroscience, engineering and computer science research at Brown University.
The BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial is taking place at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), in close collaboration with an interdisciplinary team of researchers from MGH and Brown University. The study has been approved by the MGH Institutional Review Board to begin recruiting participants. The trial extends prior safety and feasibility research of the BrainGate Neural Interface System, which consists of an implanted baby aspirin-size brain sensor that reads brain signals and computer technology that interprets these signals. The BrainGate Neural System may allow people with paralysis to control assistive devices.

deCharms, Christopher (February, 2008). Looking Inside the Brain in Real Time. TED Talks. Retrieved 3/30/08: This is a 4-minute video showing real time imaging of activity in a person's brain. This real-time visual information provides a basis for a person to train specific parts of their brain. The video discusses using this for pain control.

Gazzaniga, Michael (Organizer) (2008). Learning, Arts, and the Brain: The Dana Consortium Report on Arts and Cognition. Retrieved 3/10/08:,%20Arts%20and%20the%20Brain_ArtsAndCognition_Compl.pdf Quoting from the report's summary:

  1. An interest in a performing art leads to a high state of motivation that produces the sustained attention necessary to improve performance and the training of attention that leads to improvement in other domains of cognition.
  2. Genetic studies have begun to yield candidate genes that may help explain individual differences in interest in the arts.
  3. Specific links exist between high levels of music training and the ability to manipulate information in both working and long-term memory; these links extend beyond the domain of music training.
  4. In children, there appear to be specific links between the practice of music and skills in geometrical representation, though not in other forms of numerical representation.
  5. Correlations exist between music training and both reading acquisition and sequence learning. One of the central predictors of early literacy, phonological awareness, is correlated with both music training and the development of a specific brain pathway.
  6. Training in acting appears to lead to memory improvement through the learning of general skills for manipulating semantic information.
  7. Adult self-reported interest in aesthetics is related to a temperamental factor of openness, which in turn is influenced by dopamine-related genes.
  8. Learning to dance by effective observation is closely related to learning by physical practice, both in the level of achievement and also the neural substrates that support the organization of complex actions. Effective observational learning may transfer to other cognitive skills.

Goleman, Daniel. Why Aren't We All Good Samaritans? ( Thirteen-minute video on Social Neuroscience. Quoting from the website:

Daniel Goleman, author of Emotional Intelligence [1996], asks why we aren’t more compassionate more of the time. Sharing the results of psychological experiments (and the story of the Santa Cruz Strangler), he explains how we are all born with the capacity for empathy -- but we sometimes choose to ignore it.

Hawkins, Jeff: Brain science is about to fundamentally change computing. A 20-minute 2003 video of a TED Talk by Jeff Hawkins. Quoting from the website:

To date, there hasn't been an overarching theory of how the human brain really works, Jeff Hawkins argues in this compelling talk. That's because we still haven't defined intelligence accurately. But one thing's for sure, he says: The brain isn't like a powerful computer processor. It's more like a memory system that records everything we experience and helps us predict, intelligently, what will happen next. Bringing this new brain science to computer devices will enable powerful new applications -- and it will happen sooner than you think.

IMBES (n.d). International Mind, Brain & Education Society (IMBES) website. Retrieved 6/19/09. Quoting from the website:

The mission of the International Mind, Brain, and Education Society (IMBES) is to facilitate cross-cultural collaboration in all fields that are relevant to connecting mind, brain, and education in research, theory, and/or practice.
You can learn about our work by reading our newsletter, journal, and online conference presentations or by listening to podcasts of presentations from our international meetings.

Quoting from an IMBES project, A Groundwork for Creating Useful Knowledge about Learning and Teaching:

The connection between education and research should not be one-way. Instead, two-way, reciprocal relationships must be made, where practitioners and researchers work together to formulate research questions and methods that will move both science and teaching forward. This two-way collaboration is the only way that education can benefit from the kind of usable knowledge regularly created in fields like medicine.

Mind, Brain, and Education is the IMBES journal. Here are two examples of articles in the first issue: (

Why Mind, Brain, and Education? Why Now? Kurt W. Fischer, David B. Daniel, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Elsbeth Stern, Antonio Battro, and Hideaki Koizumi (eds.).
A Few Steps Toward a Science of Mental Life. Stanislas Dehaene.

Jensen, Eric P. (February, 2008). A Fresh Look at Brain-Based Education. Phi Delta Kappan. Retrieved 2/12/08:

This article provides an excellent overview of many different aspects of how brain research is relevant to and is impacting education. The article is available free online, at the website given in the citation.

Neville, Helen (2009). Changing Brains. University of Oregon Brain Development Lab. Retrieved 2/27/10 from This nine-part video is available free online, can be downloaded for free, and can be purchased on a DVD.

Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) Brain Institute (n.d.). Brain Awareness. Retrieved 3/30/2014 from

Payo, Robert (3/16/08). Brain Games: Neuroscience and Active Participation Teaching Methods at the ASCD Conference. Retrieved 4/9/08 from: Quoting from the website:

Another study points to changes in blood flow in the inner brain in an area known as the amygdala, related to the forming and storing of emotional memories. Studies indicate that decreases in cerebral blood flow can be found in this area when a person is in a stressful or negative emotional state, affecting their ability to retain information.
What implications does this have for teaching? Given that the brain has versatile neuroplasticity, developing student strategies to strengthen their abilities to create new pathways, connecting new knowledge to previously learned concepts and patterns, teaching students to look at problems from multiple perspectives or providing periodical shifts in attention when teaching through the use of word puzzles or discrepant events—what Willis calls “syn-naps”—can aid student understanding and capitalize on the innate processes of each individual. Such strategies are the hallmark of good teaching, but having a better understanding and intentional focus on brain-based strategies is a useful tool for any teacher.

Philips, Helen (9/4/06). Instant Expert: The Human Brain. New Scientist. Retrieved 7/24/08 from: Quoting from the article:

The complexity of the connectivity between these cells is mind-boggling. Each neuron can make contact with thousands or even tens of thousands of others, via tiny structures called synapses. Our brains form a million new connections for every second of our lives. The pattern and strength of the connections is constantly changing and no two brains are alike.
It is in these changing connections that memories are stored, habits learned and personalities shaped, by reinforcing certain patterns of brain activity, and losing others.

Pinker, Steven (n.d.). Miscellaneous video and audio talks and presentations. Retrieved 5/12/08 from:

Stansbury, Meris (7/21/09). What Educators Can Learn from Brain Research: Breakthroughs in Neuroscience Are Measuring Brain Response to Stimuli and Beginning to Alter Classroom Practices. eSchool News. Retrieved 7/21/09 from: Quoting from the article:

Michael Atherton, a researcher in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Minnesota, believes educators should look only at specific types of studies when considering implementation strategies.
"Education is an applied field, like engineering," said Atherton. "If there's no connection to practice, then that research is best left to basic researchers in the cognitive neurosciences."
In Atherton's [16-page report] titled "Education and fMRI: Promise and Cautions," he describes detailed research techniques used in fMRI studies as the foundation for a methodological framework that can be used by educators to assess how applicable a study might be for classroom implementation.

Sylwester, Robert. His 2000-2009 columns in the journal Brain Connection are available at All are education-oriented and written at a lay-person level. The sequence provides an excellent overview of this rapidly changing field.

Taylor, Jill Bolte (2008). My Stroke of Insight. TED Talks. Retrieved 5/23/08 from: 19-minute video. Quoting from the website:

Jill Bolte Taylor got a research opportunity few brain scientists would wish for: She had a massive stroke, and watched as her brain functions—motion, speech, self-awareness—shut down one by one. An astonishing story.

Wikipedia (n.d.). Cognitive neuroscience is providing us with important new understandings of brain functioning. Brain science research is producing a number of practical applications in education, medicine, and in human performance.

Willis, Judy (n.d.). Dr. Willis has written extensively about brain science and education. A number of her articles are available at

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This is a collection of IAE publications related to the IAE document you are currently reading. It is not updated very often, so important recent IAE documents may be missing from the list.

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An Intact Human Brain Is Naturally Curious and Creative.

Neuromythologies Brain Science Mythologies in Education.

Research on How Exercise Improves Brain Functioning.

The Brain Series on PBS Hosted by Charlie Ross and Eric Kandel.

The Discipline of Educational Neuroscience.

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20/20 Vision for 2020 Challenges.

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